Key concepts

The optimal method of managing chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting (CINV) is to provide adequate pharmacologic prophylaxis given a patient's risk level for emesis.

The fundamental approach to lessen the severity of mucositis begins with basic, good oral hygiene.

A risk assessment should be performed at presentation of febrile neutropenia (FN) to identify low-risk patients for potential outpatient treatment. Patients who do not meet low-risk criteria should be hospitalized for immediate parenteral administration of broad-spectrum antibacterials before culture results are obtained.

'O' The primary goal of treatment of superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) is to relieve obstruction of the superior vena cava (SVC) by treating the underlying malignancy. fi

Because patients with spinal metastases are generally incurable, the primary goal of treatment of spinal cord compression is palliation. The most important prognostic factor for patients presenting with spinal cord compression is the underlying neurologic status.

® The goals of treatment of brain metastases are to manage symptoms and improve survival by reducing cerebral edema, treat the underlying malignancy both locally and systemically.

The use of effective prevention strategies can decrease the incidence of hemor-rhagic cystitis to less than 5% in patients receiving cyclophosphamide or ifosfam-ide. There are three methods to reduce the risk: administration of mesna, hyperhy-dration, and bladder irrigation with catheterization.

® The primary goal of treatment for hypercalcemia is to control the underlying malignancy. Therapies directed at lowering the calcium level are temporary measures that are useful until anticancer therapy begins to work.

O The primary goals of management of tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) are: (a) prevention of renal failure and (b) prevention of electrolyte imbalances. Thus, the best treatment for TLS is prophylaxis to enable delivery of cytotoxic therapy for the underlying malignancy.

® Chemotherapy extravasation may be avoided in many cases by the use of successful prevention strategies. The most important preventative measure is proper patient education.

Blood Pressure Health

Blood Pressure Health

Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...

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