Key Concepts

O The most common causes of heart failure are coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertension, and dilated cardiomyopathy.

^^ Development and progression of heart failure involve activation of neurohormonal pathways, including the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS).

The clinician must identify potential reversible causes of heart failure exacerbations including prescription and nonprescription drug therapies, dietary indiscretions, and medication nonadherence.

^^ Symptoms of left-sided heart failure include dyspnea, orthopnea, and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND), whereas symptoms of right-sided heart failure include fluid retention, GI bloating, and fatigue.

Therapeutic goals focus on alleviating symptoms, slowing or preventing disease progression, maintaining quality of life, and improving patient survival.

® Nonpharmacologic treatment involves dietary modifications such as sodium and fluid restriction, risk factor reduction including smoking cessation, timely immunizations, and supervised regular physical activity.

^^ Diuretics are used for relief of acute symptoms of congestion and maintenance of euvolemia.

® Agents with proven benefits in improving symptoms, slowing disease progression, and improving survival in chronic heart failure target neurohormonal blockade; these include angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), P-adrenergic blockers, and aldosterone antagonists.

O Combination therapy with hydralazine and isosorbide dinitrate is an appropriate substitute for angiotensin II antagonism in those unable to tolerate an ACE inhibitor or ARB, or as add-on therapy in African Americans.

© Treatment of acute heart failure (AHF) targets relief of congestion and optimization of cardiac output utilizing oral or IV diuretics, IV vasodilators, and, when appropriate, inotropes.

Losing Weight Without Starving

Losing Weight Without Starving

Tired of Trying To Loose Weight And It Never Works or You Have To Starve Yourself Well Here's A Weight Loss Plan That takes Care of Your Weight Problem And You Can Still Eat. In This Book, You’ll Learn How To Lose Weight And Not Feel Hungry! In An Easy Step-By-Step Process That Enables You To Feel Good About Loosing Weight As Well As Feeling Good Because Your Stomach Is Still Full.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment