Key concepts

Parenteral nutrition (PN), also called total parenteral nutrition (TPN), is the IV administration of fluids, macronutrients, electrolytes, vitamins, and trace elements for the purpose of weight maintenance or gain, to preserve or replete lean body mass and visceral proteins, and to support anabolism and nitrogen balance when the oral/enteral route is not feasible or adequate.

01 Amino acids are provided in PN to preserve or replete lean body mass and visceral proteins, and to promote protein anabolism and wound healing.

Dextrose (D-glucose) is the major immediate energy source in PN and is vital for cellular metabolism, body protein preservation, tissue formation, and cellular growth.

IV lipid emulsions are used as an energy source in PN, and to prevent or treat essential fatty acid deficiency.

^ PN should not be used to treat acute fluid and electrolyte abnormalities. Rather, PN should be adjusted to meet maintenance requirements and to minimize worsening of underlying fluid and electrolyte disturbances.

© Electrolytes, vitamins, and trace elements are essential for numerous biochemical and metabolic functions, and should be added to PN daily unless otherwise not indicated.

^^ PN can be administered via a small peripheral vein (as peripheral PN [PPN]) or via a larger central vein (as central PN).

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