Key concepts

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are thought of as either uncomplicated or complicated. Generally this refers to absence or presence, respectively, of functional or structural abnormalities within the urinary tract.

The majority (85%) of uncomplicated UTIs are caused by Escherichia coli. The majority of the remaining 15% are caused by Staphylococcus saprophyticus along with Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacter spp., and En-terococcus spp.

Symptoms of lower UTIs include dysuria, gross hematuria, suprapubic heaviness, nocturia, increased urinary frequency, and urgency.

'O' Symptoms of upper UTIs include fever, nausea, vomiting, malaise, and often severe flank pain.

The goals of treatment of UTIs are to eradicate the offending organism, to prevent or treat consequences of infection, and to prevent recurrence of infection.

^ Uncomplicated UTIs may be managed with 3-day or even 1-day regimens, while complicated UTIs should be treated for at least 7 days and sometimes 2 weeks or longer.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are comprised of a diverse array of syndromes depending on the location of the infection within the urinary tract. UTIs occur frequently and are responsible for approximately 8.3 million physician office and hospital outpatient visits annually.1-3 In simplest of terms, a UTI is bacteria in the urinary tract, that does not represent contamination.

Bacteriuria, or bacteria in the urine, does not always represent infection. For this reason a number of quantitative diagnostic criteria have been created to identify the amount of bacteria in the urine that most likely represents true infection (hence the term "significant bacteriuria").4 These criteria are shown in Table 79-1. Furthermore, UTIs are classified as lower tract or upper tract disease. Patients can present differently with upper versus lower tract disease, and upper tract disease is thought of as a much more severe infection since patients are more likely to be admitted to the hospital with upper urinary tract disease than lower tract disease. An example of lower tract syndrome is cystitis which involves inflammation of the bladder and commonly causes symptoms such as dysuria, nocturia, gross hematuria, and occasional suprapubic tenderness. An example of upper urinary tract disease is pyelonephritis. Pyelonephritis is an inflammation of the kidney usually due to infection. Patients with uncomplicated UTI are more frequently treated as outpatients compared to those patients with complicated UTIs.

Blood Pressure Health

Blood Pressure Health

Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...

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