Key concepts

O Rehydration is the foundation of therapy for GI infections.

^^ Blood in the stool indicates the possibility of inflammatory mucosal disease of the colon such as enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), which is an important cause of bloody diarrhea in the United States.

Traveler's diarrhea is most commonly caused by bacteria such as Shigella, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and E. coli, although viruses are being recognized increasingly as a significant cause of traveler's diarrhea as well.

Education of travelers about high-risk food items is the key to the prevention of traveler's diarrhea.

© Nosocomial Clostridium difficile- associated diarrhea (CDAD) is almost always associated with antimicrobial use; therefore, unnecessary and inappropriate antibiotic therapy should be avoided. Almost all antibiotics except aminoglycosides have been associated with CDAD.

Viruses are the most common cause of diarrheal illness in the world. A live, oral vaccine is licensed and recommended for use in infants for the prevention of rotavirus infection.

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