Levocarnitinein Libido

Labetalol adverse effects of, 71/ in arrhythmias, 162 dosage of, 71/, 124/ in heart failure, 97 in hypertension, 61/, 67, 70, 71/, 72/ in hypertensive emergency, 71/ in ischemic heart disease, 124/ mechanism of action of, 162/ in pregnancy, 72/ in stroke, 220/ Labor, preterm, 826, 832/, 835-836

Labor induction, 825

Labyrinthitis, nausea and vomiting with, 358t Lacrimation, in opioid withdrawal, 619 Lactase deficiency, 376 Lactase tablets, 380 Lactated Ringer's solution, 482, 482t in dehydration, 1268t in hypovolemic shock, 256a, 257 in intra-abdominal infections, 1285 Lactation, 821-838 AAP table, 829 allergic rhinitis in, 1059 antimicrobials in, 1165 bacterial vaginosis in, 825, 833-834 breast infections in, 837-838 depression in, 665 drug, 829, 829t effects in breast-fed infants, 828-829 pharmakcokinetics, 829 drug use in, 821-838

contraindicated drugs and drugs of concern, 824t desired outcomes, 823 epidemiology of, 821-822 sources of information for, 826-827, 827t enhancement of, 836-837 epidemiology, 821-822 etiology, 821-822 milk/plasma ration, 829 pathophysiology, 822-823 respiratory disorders in, 835

risk evaluation, 823-829 Lactic acidosis, 501, 5011, 502 drug-related, 1437t in hypovolemic shock, 254, 260 with metformin, 750 in sepsis, 1349 treatment of, 260 Lactobacillus, normal flora, 1157f Lactobacillus acidophilus, 349 Lactose intolerance, 377, 1294 Lactulose in constipation, 373, 374, 375 dosage of, 830t in hepatic encephalopathy, 399 Lamina cribrosa, 1034

Laminectomy, in spinal cord compression, 1664 Lamivudine adverse effects of, 423, 1426, 1427t-1428t, 1437t in chronic hepatitis B, 423 dosage of, 423, 1427t-1428t drug interactions of, 1427t-1428t in HIV infection, 1426, 1427t-1428t, 1434 mechanism of action of, 1421f resistance to, 423 Lamotrigine, 828t adverse effects of, 529t, 530, 684

in bipolar disorder, 677t, 680t-682t, 684, 686

dosage of, 677t, 684

drug interactions of, 684

in epilepsy, 529t, 530, 530t, 531, 532t, 537t, 538

mechanism of action of, 522, 684 monitoring therapy with, 682t, 684 pharmacokinetics of, 680t-681t in pregnancy, 686

in prevention of migraine, 590, 590t Langerhans cell histiocytosis, acute leukemia and, 1580t Lanolin, in diaper dermatitis, 1106 Lanreotide in acromegaly, 807t adverse effects of, 807t dosage of, 807t Lansoprazole dosage of, 320, 321-322, 323, 335t, 336t drug interactions of, 321-322 in GERD, 320, 321-322, 323 in Helicobacter pylori eradication, 3351 in peptic ulcer disease, 336t Lanthanum adverse effects of, 463 dosage of, 464t in hyperphosphatemia, 463, 464t, 491 Laparoscopic surgery, in ovarian cancer, 1569 Laparotomy, exploratory, 1693

in ovarian cancer, 1569 Lapatinib adverse effects of, 1467 in breast cancer, 1493 in cancer therapy, 1452t, 1467 dosage of, 1467 pharmacokinetics of, 1467

Large intestine, normal flora of, 1157/ Laryngospasm allergic drug reaction, 932 respiratory acidosis with, 426t Lasar's paste, 1084

Laser iridotomy, in glaucoma, 1037, 1040 Laser trabeculoplasty, in glaucoma, 1037, 1037t Lasofoxifene, 976 Latanoprost administration of, 1040 adverse effects of, 1041 dosage of, 1038t in glaucoma, 1038t, 1040-1041 mechanism of action of, 10381, 1040 ocular changes with, 1077t Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults, 736 Latex allergy, 1100, 1100t Laxatives. See also specific types abuse, 372t, 376 in constipation, 373-374, 374t contraindications to, 375 diarrhea with, 376t hyperphosphatemia with, 491 LDL. See Low-density lipoprotein(s) Lead, in calcium products, 972 Lead poisoning, 5011, 1114a Leflunomide, 953, 988

adverse effects of, 986t, 988 dosage of, 986t mechanism of action of, 988

monitoring treatment with, 986t in rheumatoid arthritis, 9861, 988 Left ventricular dysfunction, 67, 70, 80-81, 84, 161. See also Heart failure entries Legionella, in infective endocarditis, 1242 Legionella pneumophila in pneumonia, 1190, 1190t, 1194, 1196t, 1354 within pulmonary macrophages, 1163 Legume allergy, 1684 Lenalidomide adverse effects of, 1464, 1606t, 1606 in cancer therapy, 1452t dosage in renal dysfunction, 1470t in multiple myeloma, 1464, 1606, 1606t in myelodysplastic syndrome, 1464 pharmacokinetics of, 1464 Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, 525t, 525t Lentigines, PUVA, 1085 Lepirudin adverse effects of, 198t in venous thromboembolism, 200, 200/, 201 Letrozole adverse effects of, 1469, 1487t, 1489, 1574t in breast cancer, 1487t, 1489 in cancer therapy, 1469 dosage of, 1487t, 1574t mechanism of action of, 1469, 1489 osteoporosis with, 9671 in ovarian cancer, 1574t pharmacokinetics of, 1469 Leucovorin, 1457

in colorectal cancer, 1524-1526, 1524t, 1527t, 1529, 1531 dosage of, 1524t, 1561t in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 1561t Leukemia. See also specific types acute, 1579-1595

case study of, 1584, 1587, 1589 phenotypic risk factors for, 1580 chronic, 1597-1608 metastasis to brain, 1665t with mitoxantrone, 514 secondary, 1594 Leukemoid reaction, in shigellosis, 1268 Leukocytosis, 1159t with corticosteroids, 953t in sepsis, 1349 Leukopenia, 1159t with ATG, 946 in sepsis, 1349 Leukostasis, in acute myelogenous leukemia, 1583 Leukotriene(s), biosynthesis of, 1003a Leukotriene modifiers in asthma, 273, 275t, 273, 275t, 276-278, 283 in COPD, 297 Leukotriene receptor antagonists in allergic rhinitis, 1051t, 1056, 1060t Leuprolide adverse effects of, 1468, 1487t, 1543, 1544t in breast cancer, 1487t, 1490 in cancer therapy, 1468 dosage of, 1487t, 1544t in prevention of priapism, 1149 mechanism of action of, 1468 osteoporosis with, 967t pharmacokinetics of, 1468 in prostate cancer, 1543-1544, 1544t Levalbuterol in asthma, 270t, 272-273, 277t in COPD, 294, 295t dosage of, 295t Levetiracetam adverse effects of, 533t, 536 dosage of, 533t in epilepsy, 529t, 530t, 531, 533t mechanism of action of, 5331 pharmacokinetics of, 533t Levobunolol dosage of, 1038t in glaucoma, 1038t, 1040 mechanism of action of, 10381 Levocabastine adverse effects of, 1068t in allergic conjunctivitis, 1068t dosage of, 1068t mechanism of action of, 10681 Levocarnitine in allergic rhinitis, 1053, 1054t supplementation during hemodialysis, 472 Levodopa adsorption and metabolism of, 558f anxiety with, 694t mania with, 676/ in Parkinson's disease, 556, 557 Levodopa/carbidopa adverse effects of, 461, 717/ controlled-release formulation of, 561 dosage of, 559/, 717/ liquid formulation of, 561 mechanism of action of, 559/ in Parkinson's disease, 557, 559/, 561 in restless-legs syndrome, 717, 717/ Levofloxacin administration through feeding tube, 1715

adverse effects of, 1262/

arrhythmia with, 129/

in Chlamydia, 1321

in conjunctivitis, 1066, 1066/

in cystic fibrosis, 309/

in diarrhea, 380

dosage of, 251/, 1066/, 1194/, 1196/, 1199/, 1212/, 1262/, 1269/, 1311/, 1312/, 1333/, 1342/

in gonorrhea, 1319

in intra-abdominal infections, 1287

in osteomyelitis, 1339/, 1343/

in pneumonia, 1194/, 1195,1196/, 1197,1198,1199/, 1200 in rhinosinusitis, 1212/ in sepsis, 1353/ in shigellosis, 1269/ in travelers' diarrhea, 1274

in tuberculosis, 1262/ in urinary tract infections, 1311/, 1312/ Levofloxacin resistance, 1194/ Levomethadyl, arrhythmia with, 179/ Levonorgestrel, 843, 845/, 849, 851, 853, 875/ Levorphanol dosage of, 575/ in pain, 575/ Levothyroxine (T4), 828/ anxiety with, 694/ dosage of, 769/ drug interactions of, 771/ in hypothyroidism, 769-771, 771/

alterations in LT4 dose requirement, 771 bioequivalence and LT4 product selection, 769-770 over- and undertreatment, 771 patient monitoring, 771-772 in myxedema coma, 772 in obesity, 771, 772, 774/ in thyroid cancer, 765, 777 Lewy bodies, 554

LGB 8811 regimen, in acute lymphocytic leukemia, 1405/ Lhermitte's sign, 1557 Libido, 883 decreased with 5a-reductase inhibitors, 905, 905/ with oral contraceptives, 848 Lice infestation, 1303-1304 Licorice, 54/, 206/ Lidocaine adverse effects of, 169t in arrhythmias, 1621 dosage of, 178t, 179t drug interactions of, 955t for facilitation of defibrillation, 178, 178t, 179t mechanism of action of, 162t in musculoskeletal disorders, 1025 in pain, 578, 578t in torsades de pointes, 181 in ventricular tachycardia, 178t, 178a Life expectancy, of elderly, 8-9 Lifestyle factors in anxiety disorders, 692 in breast cancer, 1477 Lifestyle modifications in allergic rhinitis, 1049-1050 in cirrhosis, 394 in constipation, 373 in erectile dysfunction, 885 in GERD, 317, 319, 320t in hyperlipidemia, 234, 236t, 240, 958 in hypertension, 58-59, 59t, 957-958 in ischemic heart disease, 117-118 in musculoskeletal disorders, 1027-1028 in osteoarthritis, 1000 in Parkinson's disease, 557 in urinary incontinence, 914 Lifting, in enuresis, 9231 Lifting techniques, 1028 Ligament, 1020, 1020/

Ligament of Treitz, 1706 Lightning strike, 11311 Light therapy, in depression, 657 Linea nigra, 825 Linear accelerator, 1665 Linezolid adverse effects of, 1177t in cellulitis, 12251

in cystic fibrosis, 309, 309t, 310

in diabetic foot infections, 1229t dosage of, 251t, 1177t, 1196t, 1225t, 1229t, 1249t, 1342t drug interactions of, 614t in infective endocarditis, 1241, 1249t in meningitis, 1177t in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 1354 in osteomyelitis, 1342, 1342t, 1343, 1344t in pneumonia, 1196t, 1197 in postneurosurgical infections, 1183 in sepsis, 13531, 1354 Linoleic acid in intravenous lipid emulsions, 1684, 1684t in pain, 579

a-Linolenic acid, in intravenous lipid emulsions, 1684, 1684t Liothyronine dosage of, 769t in hypothyroidism, 769t Liotrix dosage of, 769t in hypothyroidism, 769t Lipase pancreatic, 404

pancreatic enzyme supplements, 408, 409 serum, 405 Lipid(s)

digestion of, 1702f in enteral feeding formulas, 1708

metabolism of, 230-232

growth hormone effects on, 803/ serum, 229-248 Lipid emulsion, intravenous, 1683-1685, 1684/, 1690, 1695 caloric value of, 1683 coalescence of, 1683 complications and safety of, 1684 creaming of, 1683 oiling out of, 1683 Lipolysis, 756 Lipophilic drugs, 544-545 Lipoprotein(s). See also specific types metabolism of, 230-232, 231f 232f structure of, 230, 230f Lipoprotein(a), 240 Lipoprotein lipase, 230, 231, 1684 Lipram products, 409/ Liquid dosage forms, administration through feeding tubes, 1714 Lisinopril in acute coronary syndromes, 142/ dosage of, 92/, 121/, 142/ in heart failure, 92/, 93 in hypertension, 62, 64/

in ischemic heart disease, 121/ Lis/eria monocytogenes, in meningitis, 1170, 1171/, 1176/, 1182 Lithium, 10, 828/

adverse effects of, 38/, 591, 679, 686

augmentation of antidepressant therapy with, 662

in bipolar disorder, 676-681, 678/, 680/-681/, 682/, 686

diabetes insipidus with, 679

dosage of, 678/, 679

drug interactions of, 679, 681, 1004

enuresis with, 920

erectile dysfunction with, 885/

hypercalcemia with, 492

hypermagnesemia with, 492

hypothyroidism with, 679, 767, 767/, 779

in lactation, 824/

mechanism of action of, 679

metabolic acidosis with, 501/

monitoring therapy with, 679, 682/

osteoporosis with, 967/

pharmacokinetics of, 680/-681/

in pregnancy, 686

in prevention of cluster headaches, 591 psoriasis and, 1080 in schizoaffective disorder, 646 seizures with, 522 teratogenic effects of, 824/ Liver abscess, amebic, 295-297 Liver biopsy, in viral hepatitis, 416 Liver cancer, epidemiology of, 1446/ Liver disease alcoholic. See Alcoholic liver disease; Cirrhosis dosing adjustments for chemotherapy, 1471t drug-related, 1437t end-stage, 413

viral hepatitis and, 413, 418 erectile dysfunction with, 885t in inflammatory bowel disease, 344 obstructive, 2361 oral contraceptives and, 846 with parenteral nutrition, 1696 in sickle cell anemia/disease, 1145t Liver failure DIC with, 1131t nausea and vomiting with, 358t protein requirement in, 1689t respiratory alkalosis in, 504t treatment of, enteral nutrition, 1702t, 1710 tuberculosis and, 1261 Liver transplantation. See also Solid-organ transplantation acute rejection, signs and symptoms of, 944t epidemiology and etiology of, 941 Local anesthetics in musculoskeletal disorders, 1025 in pain, 578 Locus ceruleus, 693 Lodoxamide adverse effects of, 1068t in allergic conjunctivitis, 1068t dosage of, 1068t mechanism of action of, 10681 Loestrin-24 Fe, 848-849

Lomefloxacin dosage of, 1312/ in urinary tract infections, 1312/ Lomustine adverse effects of, 1461 in cancer therapy, 1461 emetogenicity of, 365/ mechanism of action of, 1461 pharmacokinetics of, 1461 Long QT syndrome, 179, 301 Long-term care, of elderly patients, 18-19 Loop diuretics. See also specific drugs in acute renal failure, 437 administration of, 437 adverse effects of, 60/, 65, 437 in heart failure, 89-90, 90/, 91, 100 in hypercalcemia, 492, 414/ in hyperkalemia, 454 in hypertension, 64-65 hypocalcemia with, 489 hypokalemia with, 487 hypomagnesemia with, 492 voiding symptoms with, 900/ Loperamide in diarrhea, 379, 379/, 1459, 1512, 1529, 1711 dosage of, 379/, 384/

in irritable bowel syndrome, 379, 384, 384/ in opioid withdrawal, 621/ Lopinavir/ritonavir adverse effects of, 1431/, 1438/

dosage of, 1431t drug interactions of, 850t, 1431t, 1434 food interactions of, 1431t in HIV infection, 1426, 1431t, 1434 mechanism of action of, 1421/ Loratadine in allergic rhinitis, 1053, 1054t dosage of, 830t, 834 drug interactions of, 955t in lactation, 830t, 834 in pregnancy, 830t, 834 Lorazepam, 45t in acutely psychotic patients, 647

adverse effects of, 300t, 545t, 547t in alcohol withdrawal, 618

in anticipatory nausea and vomiting, 1512, 1513t in bipolar disorder, 677t in delirium tremens, 618-619

dosage of, 3O0t, 545, 545t, 546t, 547t, 549t, 618-619, 677t, 698t drug interactions of, 699t metabolic acidosis with, 501t metabolism of, 697

in nausea and vomiting, 362t, 364, 365 in opioid withdrawal, 621t in panic disorder, 702 pharmacokinetics of, 698t in schizophrenia, 646 in seizure prophylaxis, 1636 in seizures, 618

in status epilepticus, 545, 545t, 546t, 547t, 549t

Losartan adverse effects of, 62t in antihyperuricemic treatment, 1016 dosage of, 62t, 92t in heart failure, 92t in hypertension, 62t Loteprednol adverse effects of, 1068t in allergic conjunctivitis, 1068t dosage of, 1068t mechanism of action of, 10681 Lovage root, 154t Lovastatin adverse effects of, 242t dosage of, 242t drug interactions of, 205t, 660t, 771t, 955t in hyperlipidemia, 186t, 242t, 243t, 247 in ischemic heart disease, 120 Low-back pain, 570, 1020, 1028 Low-calorie diet, 1723, 17231

Low-density lipoprotein(s) (LDL), 230-234, 2311, 231/, 1702/

physical characteristics of, 177t Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 120, 230 goals for, 120, 151, 236, 755-756 optimal level for, 230 oxidation of, 125 Lower esophageal sphincter pressure, in GERD, 316, 317t Lower respiratory tract, normal flora of, 1157/ Lower respiratory tract infection, 1189-1201 Lower urinary tract symptoms, 809

in benign prostatic hyperplasia, 895-898 Loxapine adverse effects of, 642/ dosage of, 640/ in schizophrenia, 640/ Lubiprostone adverse effects of, 374-375 in constipation, 374-375 dosage of, 375 Lubricants in constipation, 373-374 in contact dermatitis, 1102 Lugol's solution, in hyperthyroidism, 776 Lumbar puncture, in CNS infections, 1173 Lumiracoxib, 1004 Lumpectomy, 1478, 1481 Lung cancer, 1499-1514 anorexia in, 1513 cachexia in, 1513 carcinoma, 1501

case study of, 1502, 1504, 1506, 1514 clinical presentation in, 1502-1503 diagnosis of, 1502/, 1503 diet and, 1500

environmental factors in, 1500 epidemiology of, 1446/, 1500-1501 ethnicity and, 1500 etiology of, 1500-1501 extrapulmonary symptoms in, 1503 gender and, 1500

genetic factors in, 1447/, 1500-1501 histologic classification of, 1501-1502, 1502/

Horner's syndrome in, 1503 hypercalcemia with, 1670-1673 large cell, 1501, 1502/ metastasis of to bone, 1663 to brain, 1664, 1665/ non-small cell, 1501, 1502/, 1503-1504, 1504/, 1506, 1510-1511 advanced/metastatic disease, 1510 local disease, 1510 locally advanced disease, 1510 recurrent disease, 1510 outcome evaluation in, 1514 paraneoplastic syndromes in, 1503, 1513 pathophysiology of, 1501-1502, 1502/ patient care and monitoring in, 1514 performance status in, 1504, 1504/ in perihilar area, 1661 prevention of, 1501 risk factors for, 1500

small cell, 792/, 1501, 1502/, 1504, 1504/, 1506, 1509, 1509a extensive disease, 1509-1510 limited disease, 1509 recurrent disease, 1510 smoking and, 1500 staging of, 1503-1504, 1504/ superior vena cava syndrome with, 1661, 1661/ treatment of, 1504-1511

adjuvant therapy, 1504, 1508

adverse events from chemotherapy, 1511-1514 algorithm for, 1505a, 1509a chemotherapy, 1506, 1507t-1508t combination therapy, 1510-1511 monoclonal antibodies, 1508 neoadjuvant therapy, 1508 palliative therapy, 1510, 1514 postoperative radiotherapy, 1505-1506 radiation therapy, 1505-1506 single-agent chemotherapy, 1506-1508 surgery, 1504-1505 tyrosine kinase inhibitors, 1507-1508 tumor lysis syndrome in, 1674t Lung carcinoma in situ, 1501 Lung disease in cystic fibrosis, 303, 304, 306, 308, 309 in sickle cell anemia/disease, 1145t Lung transplantation. See also Solid-organ transplantation acute rejection, signs and symptoms of, 944t epidemiology and etiology of, 941 Lupus erythematosus, allergic drug reaction, 929t Luteinizing hormone at menopause, 870-871 in menstrual cycle, 843, 856, 856f Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, 1546 Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists in breast cancer, 1485, 1486t in cancer, 1468

in prostate cancer, 1539, 1539t, 1543-1544, 1544t Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonists, in cancer, 1468

Luteolysis, 864

Lycopene in prevention of prostate cancer, 1537 Lymphadenectomy, in melanoma, 1616, 1618 Lymphadenitis, cervical, 1215 Lymphangitis, 1232

Lymphatic circulation, apolipoproteins in, 230 Lymph nodes anatomic locations of, 1552/ axillary, dissection in breast cancer, 1478 biopsy in lymphoma, 1555 sentinel. See Sentinel lymph node biopsy Lymphocyte immune globulin, antithymoglobulin equine (ATG) adverse effects of, 945/, 946, 951/ dosage of, 945/, 946 in transplant recipient, 945/, 951/ Lymphocytosis, 1159/

Lymphoma, 1447/, 1551-1563. See also Hodgkin's lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma case study of, 1472, 1552, 1555, 1558

dry eye in, 1075/

superior vena cava syndrome with, 1661/ Lymphonectomy, in ovarian cancer, 1569 Lymphopenia, 1159/ Lymphoproliferative disease posttransplant, 960 rheumatoid arthritis and, 983 Lynch syndrome, 1566

Invisible Viagara

Invisible Viagara

You are about to discover the "little-known" techniques, tricks and "mind tools" that will show you how to easily "program" your body and mind to produce an instant, rock-hard erection. Learn how to enjoy all of the control, confidence and satisfaction that comes from knowing you can always "rise to the challenge" ... and never have to deal with embarrassment, apologies, shyness or performance anxiety in the bedroom, ever again.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment