Laboratory Tests

Increased blood pressure

Sodium levels remain within the normal range

Urine osmolality is generally fixed at 300 mOsm/L (300 mmol/L)

As the number of functioning nephrons continues to decline, the sodium load overwhelms the remaining nephrons and total sodium excretion is decreased, despite the increase in sodium excretion by the functioning nephrons. Sodium retention causes fluid retention that increases intravascular volume and raises systemic blood pressure. Severe volume overload can lead to pulmonary edema.

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