Liver

A liver transplant may involve the use of the entire organ or a segment of the liver. The majority of cases involve utilizing the full organ (deceased donor); however, segmental transplants are gaining popularity. In recent years, segmental transplants have been conducted using living donors. This procedure requires donation of the left hepatic lobe, which accounts for nearly 60% of the overall liver mass. This type of procedure is possible because the liver can regenerate; therefore, both the donor and recipient, in

theory, will have normal liver function shortly after the transplant procedure. There were 5,316 (5,124 deceased donors, 192 partial lobe-living donors) liver transplants done in 2009. Reasons for liver transplant include:

• Acute hepatic necrosis (i.e., chronic or acute hepatitis B or C)

• Biliary atresia

• Cholestatic liver disease/cirrhosis (i.e., primary biliary cirrhosis)

• Metabolic disease (i.e., Wilson's disease, primary oxalosis, hyperlipidemia)

• Neoplasms (i.e., hepatoma, cholangiocarcinoma, hepatoblastoma, bile duct cancer)

• Noncholestatic cirrhosis (i.e., alcoholic cirrhosis, postnecrotic cirrhosis, drug-induced cirrhosis)

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