The lymphatic system, also known as the secondary circulatory system, connects the bladder to the kidney and may represent a way for bacteria to be transported and subsequently cause infection. Although this pathway is classically included as a route of infection, there is a lack of data showing the lymphatic pathway as a significant mechanism for development of infection. As a result this pathway is not believed to be a significant host mechanism.
FIGURE 79-1. Anatomy and associated infections of the urinary tract. (From Sprandel KA, Lesch CA, Rodvold KA. Lower urinary tract infection. In: Schwinghammer TL (ed.) Pharmacotherapy Casebook: A Patient-Focused Approach, 6th ed. New York City: McGraw-Hill; 2005:315, with permission).
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