Models of HF

Earlier models of HF focused on the hemodynamic consequences of volume overload from excess sodium and water retention, decreased CO secondary to impaired ventricular function, and vasoconstriction.8 Congestion was a result of fluid backup due to inadequate pump function. Therefore, drug therapy was focused on relieving excess volume using diuretics, improving pump function with inotropic agents, and alleviating vasoconstriction with vasodilators. Although these agents improved HF symptoms, they did little to slow the progressive decline in cardiac function or to improve survival.

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