Other Organisms

Numerous bacteria, including gram-positive bacilli, unusual gram-negative bacteria, atypical bacteria, and anaerobes, as well as spirochetes, may cause IE, but these infections are rare.34 Some of the more common organisms include Legionella, Coxi-ella burnetii (Q fever), and Brucella. These rare organisms occur primarily in at-risk patients such as those who have a prosthetic valve or are IVDUs. A comprehensive discussion of these organisms is not feasible for this chapter; for further information, other references sources (particularly references 1-5) should be examined. Treatment of these organisms is difficult, and cure rates are low. Therefore, consulting an infectious diseases specialist is warranted.

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