Outcome Evaluation

• The symptoms of simple nausea and vomiting are self-limited or can be relieved with minimal treatment. Monitor patients for adequate oral intake and alleviation of nausea and vomiting.

• Patients with complex nausea and vomiting may have malnourishment, dehydration, and electrolyte abnormalities.

• Monitor patients for adequate oral intake. If the patient has weight loss, assess whether enteral or parenteral nutrition is needed.

• Assess for dry mucous membranes, skin tenting, tachycardia, and lack of axillary sweat to determine if dehydration is present.

• Obtain blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCr), calculated fractional excretion of sodium (FeNa), serum electrolytes, and arterial blood gases.

• Ask patients to rate the severity of nausea.

• Monitor the number and volume of vomiting episodes.

• Ask patients about adverse effects to the antiemetics used. Use this information to assess efficacy and tailor the patient's antiemetic regimen.

Abbreviations Introduced in This Chapter


A mcr ica n Soc ie t v o f Cli n it a 1 Que ology


Blood urea nitrogen


Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting


Chernoreceptor i rigger zone

Dopamine type 2 recepLor


Extrapyramidal symptoms


Fractional excretion of sodium


C last oesophageal reflux disease

Histamine type 1 receptor


5-HydroxyLrypLamine (serotonin) type 3 receptors


Neurokinin type 1 receptors


Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy


Postoperative nausea and vomiting


Serum creatinine

Self-assessment questions and answers are available at ht-tp://www. mhpharmacotherapy. com/pp.html.


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