Outcome evaluation

• Use a pain scale to monitor treatment interventions to ensure that pain relief is achieved. Ask the patient to rate pain on a scale of zero (no pain) to 10 (worst possible pain) both at rest and with movement. Compare the results with baseline pain assessment to monitor the response to therapy. In pediatric patients, use a visual pain scale with facial expressions depicting various degrees of pain.

• Assess range of motion at baseline and after treatment by comparing movement with the unaffected limb and functionality before the injury. Assess functionality by asking patients if they are able to perform activities of daily living or participate in exercise as desired.

• If pain from acute injury does not decrease greatly within 7 to 10 days, further diagnostic evaluation is warranted.

• For patients using capsaicin products, assess adherence to regular application for therapeutic benefit. Assess chronic pain control in 2 weeks.

• Assess medication adverse effects on a regular basis. When NSAIDs and aspirin are used, ask about GI tolerability, bruising, and bleeding. Inquire about local adverse effects, such as burning, when topical counterirritants are used for treatment.

• Evaluate adherence to preventative rehabilitation measures such as proper footwear, warm-up before activity, strength training, and proper lifting technique.

Abbreviations Introduced in This Chapter

COX INR NSAIDs ore

Cyclooxigenase

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