The exact nationwide prevalence of all diseases of the pancreas has not been fully quantified; however DM, both types 1 and 2, affects nearly 21 million people in the United States alone. Some people suffering from DM may also be afflicted with

ESRD. A small percentage of these patients may undergo a simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplant, which may be accomplished using organs from deceased or living donors. There were 325 pancreas transplants and 724 SPK procedures done in 2009. Reasons for pancreas transplants include:

• DM (i.e., type 1 and 2, DM secondary to chronic pancreatitis, DM secondary to cystic fibrosis)

• Pancreatic cancer

Transplant of a pancreas may involve either the entire organ or a pancreas segment. Currently, whole organ transplant is the most common procedure, with a portion of the duodenum often transplanted along with the pancreas. Living donors are often the source of segmental transplants. In recent years, isolation and transplantation of ( islet cells alone have been completed. Islet transplantation is intended to treat organ dysfunction by replacing nonfunctioning islet cells with new ones. In most cases no surgery is needed, and islet cells from a deceased donor's pancreas are removed and infused into a portal vein of the patient. Islet transplants are still considered experimental, and long-term benefit and/or risk of this procedure needs to be studied extensively.

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