V. cholerae is a gram-negative bacillus. Vibrios pass through the stomach to colonize the upper small intestine. Vibrios have filamentous protein extensions that attach to receptors on the intestinal mucosa, and their motility assists with penetration of the mu-12

cus layer. The cholera enterotoxin consists of two subunits, one of which (subunit A) is transported into the cells and causes an increase in cyclic adenosine mono-phos-

phate (cAMP), which leads to a deluge of fluid into the small intestine. This large volume of fluid results in the watery diarrhea that is characteristic of cholera. The stools are an electrolyte-rich isotonic fluid, the loss of which results in blood volume

depletion followed by low blood pressure and shock. Of note, the diarrheal fluid is highly infectious.

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

Rosacea and Eczema are two skin conditions that are fairly commonly found throughout the world. Each of them is characterized by different features, and can be both discomfiting as well as result in undesirable appearance features. In a nutshell, theyre problems that many would want to deal with.

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