C. difficile is spread by the fecal-oral route, and patient-to-patient transmission has been documented. C. difficile is a gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobe. The organism is ingested either as the vegetative form or spores, which can survive for long periods in the environment and can traverse the acidic stomach. In the small intestine, spores germinate into the vegetative form. In the large intestine, CDAD can develop if the normal flora is disrupted by antibiotic therapy. Toxin production is essential for disease to occur. The main virulence factor for disease related to C. difficile is the production of toxins A and B. These toxins are responsible for inflammation, fluid and mucus secretion, and mucosal damage, which lead to diarrhea or colitis.

Blood Pressure Health

Blood Pressure Health

Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...

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