The human skeleton is comprised of both cortical and trabecular bone. Cortical bone is dense and compact and is responsible for much of bone strength. It is the most common type of bone and accounts for approximately 80% of the skeleton. It is generally found on the surfaces of long and flat bones. Trabecular or cancellous bone has a spongelike appearance and is generally found along the inner surfaces of long bones and throughout the vertebrae, pelvis, and ribs.

Under normal circumstances, the skeleton undergoes a dynamic process of bone remodeling. Bone tissue responds to stress and injury through continuous replacement and repair. This process is completed by the basic multicellular unit, which includes both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Osteoclasts are involved with resorption or breakdown of bone and continuously create microscopic cavities in bone tissue. Osteoblasts are involved in bone formation and continuously mineralize new bone in the cavities created by osteoclasts. Until peak bone mass is achieved between the ages of 25 and 35, bone formation exceeds bone resorption for an overall increase in bone mass. Trabecular bone is more susceptible to bone remodeling in part due to its larger surface area.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment