Pathophysiology

Hyperprolactinemia is a condition of elevated serum prolactin.40 It is the most common endocrine disorder of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. High prolactin levels inhibit the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone by the hypothalamus and subsequently suppress secretion of LH and FSH from the anterior pituitary. High prolactin levels result in reduced gonadal hormone levels, often leading to reproductive dysfunction and galactorrhea (inappropriate breast milk production).

Table 46-4 Causes of Hyperprolactinemia

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