Pathophysiology

O1 The pathophysiology of primary hypertension is heterogeneous, but ultimately exerts its effects through the two primary determinants of BP: cardiac output (CO) and peripheral resistance (PR). The processes influencing these two determinants are numerous and complex (Fig. 5—2).9 The underlying cause of primary hypertension is unknown and most likely multifactorial. Although numerous hypotheses exist, an in-depth review of these is beyond the scope of this text and the reader is referred to additional texts for more information including discussion on the pathophysiology behind secondary causes of hypertension.10

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