Patient Care and Monitoring

For all pediatric patients, review and consider the following when selecting and monitoring drug therapy:

• Gestational age, postnatal age, and corrected age if the patient is a neonate

• Patient's demographic information including age, weight (and birth weight if a neonate), and gender

• Disease or illness for which treatment is needed

• Past medical history, including comorbidities

• Medication history current and past (including OTC and complementary and alternative products)

• History of medication adherence

• Other concurrent medications

• Previous therapy failures

• Available routes of administration

• Can the patient take medications orally?

• If IV medication is needed what types of IV accesses are available? For example, does the patient have a central or peripheral line?

• Is intramuscular administration needed?

• Fluid status—Is the patient dehydrated, balanced, or edematous?

• Available data regarding safe and effective dosing of selected drug

• Verification of accurate dose calculation

• Verify weight and dosing units (e.g., mg/kg/day, mg/kg/dose)

• Is the dosing interval appropriate?

• Is the dose an easily measurable amount for the caregiver?

• Will the drug be administered at home and/or a daycare facility or school?

• Does the parent/caregiver need additional documentation for medication administration at other locations?

• Are additional supplies for medication administration at other locations needed?

• Educate parent/caregiver/patient, regarding selected drug therapy

• Regular assessment of weight

• Premature neonates and infants can change frequently, check weight daily

• Depending on illness in older children, daily weight check may be necessary

• Organ function

• For drugs that undergo extensive hepatic metabolism and clearance, assess liver function at baseline and periodically (depending on severity of illness)

• For drugs that undergo extensive renal elimination

• Note changes in serum creatinine and urine output

• Calculate serum creatinine clearance using Schwartz's or Traub-Johnson's equations

• Measure drug serum concentrations when appropriate

• Monitor clinical outcomes of pharmacotherapy

• Monitor, manage, and prevent adverse drug events

• Monitor for drug-drug or drug-food interactions

' Self-assessment questions and answers are available at ht-tp://www. mhpharmacotherapy. com/pp.html.

Blood Pressure Health

Blood Pressure Health

Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...

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