Patient Encounters 1 Through 5 Application of Basic Pathophysiology Case Study

An unconscious 23-year-old man is brought to the emergency department by several friends who quickly disappear without providing any clinical history. On exam the patient has prominent "track marks" consistent with chronic IV drug abuse. The initial

ABG has a pH of 7.16, PaC02 of 70 mm Hg (9.3 kPa), and HCO^ 0f 27 mEq/L (mmol/L).

What is the primary acid-base disorder? Has compensation occurred?

Given the clinical history, what is the most likely explanation for the ABG findings? Case Study 2

The next patient is a 72-year-old man with advanced emphysema who requires chronic oxygen therapy. During a routine office visit, an ABG is checked to verify his ongoing need for supplemental oxygen. His blood gas sample has a pH of 7.34, PaCC>2 of 60

What is the primary acid-base disorder?

Has compensation occurred?

Given the clinical history, what is the most likely explanation for the ABG findings? Case Study 3

Now consider a healthy 20-year-old woman who is having labs drawn as part of a research protocol. Her ABG shows a pH of 7.50, PaC02 of 29 mm Hg (3.86 kPa), and

What is the primary acid-base disorder?

Has compensation occurred?

Given the clinical history, what is the most likely explanation for the ABG findings? Case Study 4

This 59-year-old woman has a long history of ischemic cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure that requires daily furosemide (Lasix) therapy. An ABG has been drawn because of increasing dyspnea and shows the following: pH of 7.50, PaC02 of

47 mm Hg (6.3 kPa), and HCO^ 0f 36 mEq/L (mmol/L). What is the primary acid-base disorder? Has compensation occurred?

Given the clinical history, what is the most likely explanation for the ABG findings? Case Study 5

The final patient in this section is a 46-year-old woman with chronic renal insufficiency who is being hospitalized for gastroenteritis with profound diarrhea. Her ABG

shows a pH of 7.20, PaCC>2, of 20 mm Hg (2.7 kPa), and HCO^ of 8 mEq/L (mmol/L).

What is the primary acid-base disorder? Has compensation occurred?

Given the clinical history, what is the most likely explanation for the ABG findings?

Acid-base disturbances are always manifestations of underlying clinical disorders. It is useful to specifically define the primary acid-base abnormality, as each disorder is caused by a limited number of disease processes. Establishing the specific disease process responsible for the observed acid-base disorder is clinically important because treatment of a given disorder will only be accomplished by correcting the underlying disease process.

Defeat Drugs and Live Free

Defeat Drugs and Live Free

Being addicted to drugs is a complicated matter condition that's been specified as a disorder that evidences in the obsessional thinking about and utilization of drugs. It's a matter that might continue to get worse and become disastrous and deadly if left untreated.

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