The female menstrual cycle is divided into four functional phases: follicular, ovulatory, luteal, and menstrual.6 The follicular phase begins the cycle, and ovulation generally occurs around day 14. The luteal phase then begins and continues until menstruation occurs.6 The menstrual cycle is regulated by a negative-feedback hormone loop between the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary gland, and ovaries.6 (Fig. 48-1).

15 mlU/mL

250-400 pg/mL* Progesterone


125-250 pg/mL*

40 pg/mL

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