Pn components

PN should provide a balanced nutritional intake, including macronutrients, micronu-trients, fluid and electrolytes. Macronutrients, including amino acids, dextrose, and IV lipid emulsions, are important sources of structural and energy-yielding substrates. A balanced PN formulation of total daily calories includes 10% to 20% from amino acids, 50% to 60% from dextrose, and 20% to 30% from IV lipid emulsion. Under conditions when patients have higher protein requirements (e.g., severe thermal injury, treatment with continuous renal replacement therapy, hypocaloric feeding—discussed later), amino acids may provide slightly more than 20% of the total daily calories. Electrolytes and micronutrients including vitamins and trace elements are required to support essential biochemical reactions. PN also provides a significant source of fluids. Patients require individual adjustments of PN components based on their nutri tional status, nutritional requirements, underlying disease state(s), level of metabolic stress, clinical status, and organ functions.

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