Principles

• Treat underlying precipitating factors

• Avoid delays in analgesia administration

• Use pain scale to assess severity

• Choice of initial analgesic should be based on previous pain crisis pattern, history of response, current status, and other medical conditions

• Schedule pain medication; avoid as-needed dosing

• Provide rescue dose for breakthrough pain

• If adequate pain relief can be achieved with one or two doses of morphine, consider outpatient management with a weak opioid; otherwise hospitalization is needed for parenteral analgesics

• Frequently assess to evaluate pain severity and side effects; titrate dose as needed

• Treating adverse effects of opioids is part of pain management

• Consider nonpharmacologic intervention

• Transition to oral analgesics as the patient improves; choose an oral agent based on previous history, anticipated duration, and ability to swallow tablets; if sustained-release products are used, a fast-release product is also needed for breakthrough pain

Anxiety and Depression 101

Anxiety and Depression 101

Everything you ever wanted to know about. We have been discussing depression and anxiety and how different information that is out on the market only seems to target one particular cure for these two common conditions that seem to walk hand in hand.

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