References

1. Rose BD, Post TW. Clinical Physiology of Acid-Base and Electrolyte Disorders. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2001: 299.

2. Schlichtig R, Grogono A, Severinghaus J. Human PaCO2 and standard base excess for compensation of acid-base imbalances. Crit Care Med 1998;26:1173-1179.

3. Pierce NF, Fedson DS, Brigham KL, et al. The ventilatory response to acute base deficit in humans. Time course during development and correction of metabolic acidosis. Ann Intern Med 1970;72:633-640.

4. Javaheri S, Kazemi H. Metabolic alkalosis and hypoventilation in humans. Am Rev Respir Dis 1987;136:1011-1016.

5. Polak A, Haynie GD, Hays RM, Schwartz WB. Effects of chronic hypercapnia on electrolyte and acid-base equilibrium. J Clin Invest 1961;40:1223-1237.

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7. van Yperselle de Striho C, Brasseur L, de Coninck JD. The "carbon dioxide response curve" for chronic hypercapnia in man. N Engl J Med 1966;275:117-122.

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11. Goodkin DA, Gollapudi GK, Narins RG. The role of the anion gap in detecting and managing mixed metabolic acid-base disorders. Clin Endocrinol Metab 1984;13:333-349.

12. Adrogué HJ, Madias NE. Management of life-threatening acid-base disorders. First of two parts. N Engl J Med 1998;338:26-34.

13. Adrogué HJ, Madias NE. Management of life-threatening acid-base disorders. Second of two parts. N Engl J Med 1998;338:107-111.

14. Abelow B. Understanding Acid-Base. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1998: 229.

15. Kearns T, Wolfson A. Metabolic acidosis. Emerg Med Clin North Am 1989;7:823-835.

16. Batlle DC, Hizon M, Cohen E, Gutterman C, Gupta R. The use of the urinary anion gap in the diagnosis of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. N Engl J Med 1988;318:594-599.

17. Hood FL, Tannen RL. Protection of acid-base balance by pH regulation of acid production. N Engl J Med 1998;339:819-826.

18. Chernow B, ed. The Pharmacologic Approach to the Critically Ill Patient. 3rd ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1994: 965.

SECTION 5 NEUROLOGIC DISORDERS

29 Multiple Sclerosis

Melody Ryan

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