1. Shehab N, Patel PR, Srinivasan A, Budnitz DS. Emergency department visits for antibiotic-associated adverse events. Clin Infect Dis 2008;47:735-743.

2. National Vital Statistics Reports 2005;(53)17.

3. Centers for Disease Control Antimicrobial Resistance.

4. Vanderweil SG, Pelletier AJ, Hamedani AG, Gonzales R, Metlay JP, Camargo CA Jr. Declining antibiotic prescriptions for upper respiratory infections, 1993-2004. Acad Emerg Med 2007;14:366-369.

5. Burke J. Infection control—A problem for patient safety. N Engl J Med 2003;348:651-655.

6. Mackowiak PA. Temperature regulation and the pathogenesis of fever. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R. Mandell, Douglas, Bennett's, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone, 2000:604-620.

7. Practice Guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America. ht-tp://

8. Kollef MH, Sherman G, Ward S, Fraser VJ. Inadequate antimicrobial treatment of infections: A risk factor for hospital mortality among critically ill patients. Chest 1999;115:462-474.

9. Antimicrobial spectra. In: Gilbert DN, Moellering RC, Eliopoulos GM, Sande MA, eds. The Sanford Guide to Antimicrobial Therapy 2008. 38th ed. Sperryville, VA: Antimicrobial Inc.

10. John Hopkins University Division of Infectious Diseases Antibiotic Guide. http://www.

11. Johnson S, Samore MH, Farrow AF, et al. Epidemics of diarrhea caused by a clindamycin resistant strain of Clostridium difficile in four hospitals. N Engl J Med 1999;341:1645-1651.

12. Peloquin CA. Tuberculosis. In: DiPiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, et al., eds. Phar-macotherapy: A Pathophysiological Approach. 6th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005:2015-2334.

13. Baddour LM, Wilson WR, Bayer AS, et al. Infective endocarditis: diagnosis, antimicrobial therapy, and management of complications: a statement for health care professionals from the Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, and the Councils on Clinical Cardiology, Stroke, and Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, American Heart Association: endorsed by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Circulation 2005;111:394-434.

14. Chamot E, Boffi E, Amari E, et al. Effectiveness of combination antimicrobial therapy for Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003;47:2756-2764.

15. Craig WA. Pharmacodynamics of antimicrobials. In: Nightingale CH, Murakawa T, Ambrose PG, eds. Antimicrobial Pharmacodynamics in Theory and Clinical Practice. 1st ed. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2002:1-22.

16. Rybak MJ. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of vancomycin. Clin Infect Dis 2006;42(Suppl 1):S35-S39.

17. Ray WA, Murray KT, Meredith S, et al. Oral erythromycin and the risk of sudden death from cardiac causes. N Engl J Med 2004;351:1089-1096.

18. Laheij RJ, Sturkenboom MC, Hassing R, et al. Risk of community-acquired pneumonia and use of gastric acid-suppressing drugs. JAMA 2004;292:1955-1960.

19. Gruchalla RS, Pirmohamed M. Clinical practice. Antibiotic allergy. N Engl J Med 2006;354:601-609.

20. Weiss ME, Adkinson NF. B-lactam Allergy. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone, 2005.

21. Frye RF, Matzke GR. Drug therapy individualization for patients with renal insufficiency. In: DiPiro JT, TalbertRL, Yee GC, et al., eds. Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiological Approach. 6th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005:919-933.

22. Briggs GG, Freeman RK, Yaffe SJ. Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005.

23. Hale TW. Medications and Mothers' Milk. 11th ed. Amarillo, TX: Pharmasoft, 2004.

24. Press RA. The use of fluoroquinolones as antiinfective transition-therapy agents in community-acquired pneumonia. Pharmacotherapy 2001;21(7 pt 2):100S-104S.

25. Goff DA. Short-duration therapy for respiratory tract infections. Ann Pharmacoth-er 2004;38(Suppl 9):S19-S23.

26. Chastre J, Wolff M, Fagon JY, et al. For the PneumA Trial Group. Comparison of 8 vs 15 days of antibiotic therapy for ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults: A randomized trial. JAMA 2003;290:2588-2598.

27. Kollef MH, Napolitano LM, Solomkin JS, Wunderink RG, Bae IG, Fowler VG, Balk RA, Stevens DL, Rahal JJ, Shorr AF, Linden PK, Micek ST. Healthcare-associated infection (HAI): A critical appraisal of the emerging threat-proceedings of the HAI Summit. Clin Infect Dis 2008 Oct 1;2 (Suppl 47):S55-S99.

70 Central Nervous System Infections

P. Brandon Bookstaver and April D. Miller


51 Ways to Reduce Allergies

51 Ways to Reduce Allergies

Do you hate the spring? Do you run at the site of a dog or cat? Do you carry around tissues wherever you go? Youre not alone. 51 Ways to Reduce Allergies can help. Find all these tips and more Start putting those tissues away. Get Your Copy Of 51 Ways to Reduce Allergies Today.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment