Reproductive System

CF patients often experience delayed puberty. In females, menarche occurs 18 months later than average, and menstrual irregularity is common. Females also have reduced fertility due to increased viscosity of cervical mucus. Due to increasing life expectancy, pregnancy is becoming more common; however, outcomes depend on prepartum nutritional and pulmonary status. Almost all males with CF are azoospermic due to congenital absence ofthe vas deferens with resultant obstruction; however, conception still occurs occasionally. Conception can also occur through application of assisted reproductive technologies.9

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