• Observation of the patient may reveal use of accessory muscles of respiration (manifested as paradoxical movements of the chest and abdomen, in a "seesaw"-type motion), pursed-lips breathing, and hyperinflation of the chest with increased anterior-posterior diameter ("barrel chest").

• On auscultation of the lungs, patients may have distant breath sounds, wheezing, a prolonged expiratory phase of respiration, and rhonchi.

• In advanced COPD, signs of hypoxemia may include cyanosis and tachycardia.

• Signs of cor pulmonale include increased pulmonic component of the second heart sound, jugular venous distention (JVD), lower extremity edema, and hepatomegaly.

Blood Pressure Health

Blood Pressure Health

Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment