Sodium Regulation

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The contribution of sodium to the development of primary hypertension is related to excess sodium intake and/or abnormal sodium excretion by the kidneys. Proposed mechanisms supporting either of these are numerous and complex. However, it is generally accepted that dietary salt is associated with increases in BP that can be lowered with reduction of sodium intake.1,15 There appears to be a threshold effect of sodium intake in the range of 50 to 100 mmol/day (1.2-2.4 g of sodium per day, which is equivalent to 3-6 g of sodium chloride per day [50-100 mmol/day]) and its impact on BP. The mean sodium intake per day is 175 mmol (4.1 g) for men and 120 mmol (2.7 g) for women in the United States, with the majority derived from processed foods.1 Adherence to sodium restriction is important as up to 50% of all individuals appear to be sodium-sensitive and thus susceptible to a high dietary sodium intake.9

FIGURE 5-2. Factors involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension are summarized. Some of the factors involved in the control of BP affect the basic equation: BP = CO x PR. The figure depicts the complex nature of various factors that may play a role in the development of hypertension. Each of these factors may individually or collectively modulate BP through its actions on various physiologic systems at the cellular, organ, and organ system level. (BP, blood pressure; CO, cardiac output; PR, peripheral resistance.) (From Kaplan NM. Primary hypertension: Pathogenesis. In: Kaplan's Clinical Hypertension. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott) Williams & Wilkins; 2006: 63, with permission.)

FIGURE 5-2. Factors involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension are summarized. Some of the factors involved in the control of BP affect the basic equation: BP = CO x PR. The figure depicts the complex nature of various factors that may play a role in the development of hypertension. Each of these factors may individually or collectively modulate BP through its actions on various physiologic systems at the cellular, organ, and organ system level. (BP, blood pressure; CO, cardiac output; PR, peripheral resistance.) (From Kaplan NM. Primary hypertension: Pathogenesis. In: Kaplan's Clinical Hypertension. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott) Williams & Wilkins; 2006: 63, with permission.)

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Blood Pressure Health

Blood Pressure Health

Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...

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