T Lymphocytes

The development and activation of T lymphocytes are important to maintain protection from infection without causing harm to the host.9 Activation of mature T lymphocytes requires two signals. The first is the presentation of an antigen by antigen-presenting cells to the T-lymphocyte receptor. Second, a ligand-receptor complex (i.e.,

CD80/CD86) on antigen-presenting cells binds to CD28 receptors on T lymphocytes. Once a cell successfully passes through all stages, the inflammatory cascade is activated.10 Activation of T lymphocytes: (a) stimulates the release of macrophages or monocytes, which subsequently causes the release of inflammatory cytokines; (b) activates osteoclasts; (c) activates the release of matrix metalloproteinases or enzymes responsible for the degradation of connective tissue; and (d) stimulates B lymphocytes and the production of antibodies.4,9

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