T N FTu mor nec rosis factor

^ Self-assessment questions and answers are available at ht-tp://www. mhpharmacotherapy. comlpp.html.


1. National Multiple Sclerosis Society. Just the facts: 2006-2007. Available at ht-tp://www.nationalmssociety.org/multimedia-library/brochures/general-informa-tion/download.aspx?id=22.

2. Zorzon M, Zivadinov R, Nasuelli D, et al. Risk factors of multiple sclerosis: A case-control study. Neurol Sci 2003;24:242-247.

3. Sundstrom P, Nystrom L, Hallmans G. Smoke exposure increases the risk for multiple sclerosis. Eur J Neurol 2008;15:579-583.

4. Gale CR, Martyn CN. Migrant studies in multiple sclerosis. Prog Neurobiol 1995;47:425-448.

5. Oksenberg JR, Baranzini SE, Sawcer S, Hauser SL. The genetics of multiple sclerosis: SNPs to pathways to pathogenesis. Nature 2008; 9:516-526.

6. Fotheringham J, Jacobson S. Human herpesvirus 6 and multiple sclerosis: Potential mechanisms for virus-induced disease. Herpes 2005; 12:4-9.

7. Wiendl H, Kieseier BC. Disease-modifying therapies in multiple sclerosis: An update on recent and ongoing trials and future strategies. Expert Opin Invest Drugs 2003;12:689-712.

8. Hartung HP, Bar-Or A, Zoukos Y. What do we know about the mechanism of action of disease-modifying treatments in MS? J Neurol 2004;251(Suppl 5):v12-v29.

9. Kuhlmann T, Lingfeld G, Bitsch A, et al. Acute axonal damage in multiple sclerosis is most extensive in early disease stages and decreases over time. Brain 2002;125: 2202-2212.

10. Hasselkorn JK, Balsdon RC, Fry WD, et al. Overview of spasticity management in multiple sclerosis. Evidence-based management strategies for spasticity treatment in multiple sclerosis. J Spinal Cord Med 2005;28:167-199.

11. Lapierre Y, Hum S. Treating fatigue. Int MS J 2007;14: 64-71.

12. Andersson KE, Pehrson R. CNS involvement in overactive bladder: Pathophysiology and opportunities for pharmacological intervention. Drugs 2003;63: 2595-2611.

13. DasGupta R, Fowler CJ. Bladder, bowel and sexual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis: Management strategies. Drugs 2003;63:153-166.

14. Goldman Consensus Group. The Goldman Consensus statement on depression in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler 2005;11:328-337.

15. Pittock SJ, McClelland BL, Mayr WT, et al. Prevalence of tremor in multiple sclerosis and associated disability in the Olmsted County population. Mov Disord 2004;19:1482-1485.

16. Pollmann W, Feneberg W. Current management of pain associated with multiple sclerosis. CNS Drugs 2008; 22:291-324.

17. McDonald WI, Compston A, Edan G, et al. Recommended diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: Guidelines from the international panel on the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 2001;50:121-127.

18. Dalton CM, Brex PA, Miszkiel KA, et al. Application of the new McDonald criteria to patients with clinically isolated syndrome suggestive of multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 2002;52:47-53.

19. Tintore M, Rovira A, Rio J, et al. New diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: Application in first demyelinating episode. Neurology 2003;60:27-30.

20. Keegan BM, Noseworthy JH. Multiple sclerosis. Annu Rev Med 2002;53:285-302.

21. Rudick RA, Cutter G, Reingold S. The Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite: A new clinical outcome measure for multiple sclerosis trials. Mult Scler 2002;8:359-365.

22. Kurtzke JF. Rating neurologic impairment in multiple sclerosis: An expanded disability status scale (EDSS). Neurology 1983;33:1444-1452.

23. Sadovnick AD, Ebers GC, Wilson RW, et al. Life expectancy in patients attending multiple sclerosis clinics. Neurology 1992;42:991-994.

24. Sadovnick AD, Eisen K, Ebers GC, Paty DW. Cause of death in patients attending multiple sclerosis clinics. Neurology 1991;41:1193-1196.

25. Sloka JS, Stefanelli M. The mechanism of action of methylprednisolone in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler 2005;11:425-432.

26. Goodin DS, Frohman EM, Garmany GP, et al. Disease modifying therapies in multiple sclerosis: Report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the MS Council for Clinical Practice Guidelines. Neurology 2002;58:169-178.

27. Filippini G, Brusaferri F, Sibley WA, et al. Corticosteroids or ACTH for acute exacerbations in multiple sclerosis (review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;4: CD001331.

28. Beck RW, Cleary PA, Anderson MM, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of corticosteroids in the treatment of acute optic neuritis. The Optic Neuritis Study Group 1992;326:581-588.

29. Morrow SA, Stoian CA, Dmitrovic J, et al. The bioavailability of IV methylpred-nisolone and oral prednisone in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2004;63:1079-1080.

30. Alam SM, Kyriakides T, Lawden M, Newman PK. Methylprednisolone in multiple sclerosis: A comparison of oral with intravenous therapy at equivalent high dose. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1993;56:1219-1220.

31. Perumal JS, Caon C, Hreha S, et al. Oral prednisone taper following intravenous steroids fails to improve disability or recovery from relapses in multiple sclerosis. Eur J Neurol 2008;15:677-680.

32. Medical Advisory Board of the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, Changing Therapy Consensus Statement Taskforce. Changing therapy in relapsing multiple sclerosis: Considerations and recommendations of a task force of the National Multiple Sclerosis Society. Available at http://www.nationalmssociety.org/for-pro-fessionals/healthcare-professionals/expert-opinion-papers/down-load.aspx?id=129.

33. Dhib-Jalbut S. Mechanisms of action of interferons and glatiramer acetate in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2002;58:S3-S9.

34. Filippini G, Munari L, Incorvaia B, et al. Interferons in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: A systematic review. Lancet 2003;361:545-552.

35. Jacobs LD, Beck RW, Simon JH, et al. Intramuscular interferon beta-1a therapy initiated during a first demyelinating event in multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med 2000;343:898-904.

36. Comi G, Filippi M, Barkhof F, et al. Effect of early interferon treatment on conversion to definite multiple sclerosis: A randomized study. Lancet 2001;357:1576-1582.

37. CHAMPIONS Study Group. IM interferon ß-1a delays definite multiple sclerosis 5 years after a first demyelinating event. Neurology 2006;66:678-684.

38. Kappos L, Freedman MS, Polman CH, et al. Effect of early versus delayed interferon beta-1b treatment on disability after a first clinical event suggestive of multiple sclerosis: A 3-year follow-up analysis of the BENEFIT study. Lancet 2007;370:389-397.

39. Multiple Sclerosis Therapy Consensus Group. Escalating immunotherapy of multiple sclerosis: New aspects and practical application. J Neurol 2004;251:1329-1339.

40. Moses H, Brandes DW. Managing adverse effects of disease-modifying agents used for treatment of multiple sclerosis. Curr Med Res Opin 2008;24:2679-2690.

41. Vartanian T, Sorensen PS, Rice G. Impact of neutralizing antibodies on the clinical efficacy of interferon beta in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol 2004;251(Suppl 2):II25-II30.

42. Hartung HP, Munschauer F, Schellekens H. Significance of neutralizing antibodies to interferon beta during treatment of multiple sclerosis: Expert opinions based on the Proceedings of an International Consensus Conference. Eur J Neurol 2005;12:588-601.

43. Soelberg Sorensen P, Koch-Henriksen N, Ross C, et al. Appearance and disappearance of neutralizing antibodies during interferon-beta therapy. Neurology 2005;65:33-39.

44. Malucchi S, Gilli F, Caldano M, et al. Predictive markers for response to interferon therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2008;70:1119-1127.

45. Boneschi FM, Rovaris M, Johnson KP, et al. Effects of glatiramer acetate on relapse rate and accumulated disability in multiple sclerosis: Meta-analysis of three double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Mult Scler 2003;9:349-355.

46. Galetta SL, Markowitz C. U.S. FDA-approved disease-modifying treatments for multiple sclerosis: Review of adverse effect profiles. CNS Drugs 2005;29:239-252.

47. Daugherty KK, Butler JS, Mattingly M, Ryan M. Factors leading patients to discontinue multiple sclerosis therapies. J Am Pharm Assoc 2005;45:371-375.

48. Choflon M. Mechanisms of action for treatments in multiple sclerosis: Does a heterogeneous disease demand and multi-targeted therapeutic approach? Biodrugs 2005;19:299-308.

49. Cohen BA, Mikol DD. Mitoxantrone treatment of multiple sclerosis: Safety considerations. Neurology 2004;63:S28-S32.

50. Polman CH, O'Connor PW, Havrdova E, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of natalizumab for relapsing multiple sclerosis. N Eng J Med 2006;354; 899-910.

51. Kappos L, Bates D, Hartung HP, et al. Natalizumab treatment for multiple sclerosis: Recommendations for patient selection and monitoring. Lancet Neurol 2007;6:431-441.

52. Calabresi PA, Giovannoni G, Confavreux C, et al. The incidence and significance of anti-natalizumab antibodies: Results from AFFIRM and SENTINEL. Neurology 2007;69:1391-1403.

53. Lee D, Newell R, Ziegler L, Topping A. Treatment of fatigue in multiple sclerosis: A systematic review of the literature. Int J Nurs Pract 2008;14:81-93.

54. Shakespeare DT, Boggild M, Young C. Anti-spasticity agents for multiple sclerosis. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003; Issue 4. Art. No.: CD001332. DOI: 10.1001/14651858.CD001332.

55. Christodoulou C, Melville P, Scherl WF, et al. Effect of donepezil on memory and cognition in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci 2006;245: 127-136.

30 Epilepsy

Timothy E. Welty and Edward Faught


Anxiety and Depression 101

Anxiety and Depression 101

Everything you ever wanted to know about. We have been discussing depression and anxiety and how different information that is out on the market only seems to target one particular cure for these two common conditions that seem to walk hand in hand.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment