Upon completion of the chapter the reader will be able to

1. Differentiate between the common underlying etiologies of heart failure, including ischemic, nonischemic, and idiopathic causes.

2. Describe the pathophysiology of heart failure as it relates to neurohormonal activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS).

3. Identify signs and symptoms of heart failure and classify a given patient by the New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Classification (FC) system and American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Heart Failure Staging.

4. Describe the goals of therapy for a patient with acute or chronic heart failure.

5. Develop a nonpharmacologic treatment plan which includes patient education for managing heart failure.

6. Develop a specific evidence-based pharmacologic treatment plan for a patient with acute or chronic heart failure based on disease severity and symptoms.

7. Formulate a monitoring plan for the nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment of a patient with heart failure.

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