Upon completion of the chapter the reader will be able to

1. List the appropriate indications for the use of parenteral nutrition (PN).

2. Describe the components of PN and their role in nutrition support therapy.

3. List the elements of nutrition assessment and factors considered in assessing a patient's nutritional status and nutritional requirements.

4. Explain the pharmaceutical and compounding issues with PN admixtures.

5. Develop a plan to design, initiate, and adjust a PN formulation based on patient-specific factors.

6. Describe the etiology and risk factors for PN macronutrient-associated complications including hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and azotemia in patients receiving PN.

7. Describe the etiology and risk factors for the refeeding syndrome.

8. Describe the etiology and risk factors for liver complications and metabolic bone disease in patients receiving PN.

9. Design a plan to monitor and correct fluid, electrolyte, vitamin, and trace element abnormalities in patients receiving PN.

10. Design a plan to assess the efficacy and monitor the safety of PN therapy.

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