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An Osteopathic Perspective

Photographs by Tim Turner Tim Turner provided the photographs. We would like to thank him for his patience and understanding during the many photographic sessions. We are indebted to Andrea Robertson for her good humor and endurance during the long sessions spent as the model for the photographs and CD-ROM. The teaching potential of the text has been greatly enhanced by the visual material and their contribution.

Continuum of Adaptive Creative Behaviors

Individuals discover and investigate their own real problems or burning questions related to areas of interest and developing knowledge, producing new information that is valued by self and others, although the scope is limited to an arena 'close to home.' The individual's views begin to be imposed on the world. Adaptation starts to shift from making self fit the world to changing the world a little by one's ideas and efforts. Example a fourth grader logs weights, measurements, behaviors, and daily photographs of the changes in their husky's litter of puppies over 8 weeks, publishing their research in a children's magazine an elderly citizen, moved by the plight of the homeless, rallies a community to help.

Benefits to elderly people

People who do not like animals will gain nothing from their presence, but there are many other practical reasons why the elderly do not keep pets. Some elderly fear abandoning a pet through illness or death or are concerned about not being able to cope with the loss of yet another pet. Others worry about the extra work a pet can create and a lack of financial resources. Residential homes in particular often do not allow their patients to keep pets but there is a growing awareness of the needs of the elderly and the benefits of companion animals and many homes allow therapeutic visits from volunteers with friendly pets. An organisation, the Cinnamon Trust, was formed to assist the elderly in looking after their pets in their own homes. The aim is to preserve the relationship between owners and their pets by providing practical help to care for the animal through a network of volunteers. For example, a volunteer may walk the dog of an owner who is housebound. Foster homes will take care...

Scoliosis Resulting From Neuromuscular Disease

The accompanying photographs show the marked weakness of the right abdominal musculature and the associated lateral curve. This patient had polio at the age of 1 year and 4 months but was not admitted to a hospital for treatment until the age of 8 years and 8 months. She was placed on a flexed frame to relax the abdomi

Diagnostic Considerations for Esthetic Implant Therapy

Radiographic, modern diagnostic evaluation tools are considered to be the logical stepping stones to ensuring a successful treatment. Besides radiographs, old photographs or slides provided by the patient are fairly important components of the treatment plan. The photographs can offer a glimpse of what the original teeth looked like before the tooth or teeth were lost. In some cases, the patient may want to duplicate what they previously looked like in others, they may wish to hide a deformity or abnormality that they used to have. Learning the patient's desires and expectations by using old, original pictures as a reference can be very helpful in anterior oral rehabilitations. This pretreatment appraisal influences not only treatment modality selection but also treatment timing, sequence, and prognosis. Intraoral photographs and full-face or profile pictures can help give an improved perspective on the depth and shape of the teeth but not the shade. They are, however, invaluable for...

Induction as Scientific Methodology

Of course, analogies between everyday induction and scientific induction have to exist. As long as both children and scientists have beliefs that have positive inductive potential, those beliefs are likely to have some correspondence to the world, and the knowledge of children and scientists will therefore have to show some convergence. If children did operate merely on the basis of superficial similarities, such things as photographs and toy cars would forever stump them. Children have no choice but to be little scientists, merely to walk around the world without bumping into things. Because of the inevitability of such correspondences and because scientific theories take a multitude of different forms, it is not obvious that this approach, in the absence of a more fully specified model, has much to offer theories of cognition. Furthermore, proponents of this approach typically present a rather impoverished view of scientific activity which neglects the role of social and cultural...

Cognitive Neuroscience Approach

Researchers have attempted to overcome the self-selection of memories by participants in brain scanning experiments. Gilboa, Winocur, Grady, Hevenor, and Moscovitch (2004) used photographs provided by the participant's friends and relatives as stimuli. The variety of autobiographical memories is also a major problem for brain scanning researchers. fMRI researchers often interview the participant before the scanning so that they have a database of memories to present during scanning. Maguire et al. (2001) over-sampled memories from their participants and collected ratings of these

Institutional Review Boards

Confidentiality and privacy play important roles in epidemiological studies, and are ensured by the use of anonymous identifiers. Personal health information can be used for epidemiological studies under HIPAA rules. The information must be created in a form that is not individually identifiable by de-identifying it. This can be done by removing 18 specific identifiers. The list of identifiers includes the following name street address city county precinct ZIP code Social Security number date of birth (except year alone) admission and discharge dates (except year) age over 89 (including date of birth and year of birth alone) telephone, fax, medical record, insurance and account numbers e-mail address certificate license number vehicle identifiers and serial number (including license plates) device identification and serial numbers URLs and Internet Protocol address number biometric identification (including finger and voice prints) full face and profile photographs and any other...

Photography and Alice

His contact with the girls was frequent but his relationship with Alice grew over the years. His photographs of her, such as Alice as a young beggar, indicate his complex feelings for her. It was on an outing with the three sisters that he first told the story of Alice's adventures underground. During that same year something happened because he fell out of the good graces of Mrs. Liddell. Three years later he seldom saw Alice again. Although he now had no contact with her he wrote Through the Looking Glass, which is the further adventures of Alice. For lack of documentation, the reasons for the disruption of his relationship with Alice are not well established. However, there is some evidence that Charles was interested in eventually marrying her. The two stories inspired by Alice are at one level descriptions of growing up in a dream world inhabited by characters who are animals and humans who are unpredictable. In her encounters Alice reflects common sense in an illogical and often...

Symmetry and fractal properties in creativity

Fractals also have aesthetic qualities. They are similar (although not identical) at different magnifications. To a beach connoisseur Washington beaches are recognizable (and distinguishable from Cape Cod beaches) at many scales in aerial photographs, viewed from a headland, walking by the water, and even in tiny fringes around a tidepool. Miniatures have an important relation to creativity a symbol, song, a statistical model, and a mathematical notation can all be miniatures. Levi-Strauss stated that all miniatures seem to have an intrinsic aesthetic quality, precisely because they are small and complete. Similarly Ruth Richards notes how people find fractal patterns beautiful, are drawn to things, like waterfalls and beaches, that instantiate them. Mathematical analyses of Jackson Pollock's 'spatter' paintings suggest a fractal organization not found in 'pseudo-Pollocks.'

And Vacuum Blot Transfer of CBF3MYH11 PCR Products

Following electrophoresis, observe and photograph the gel under UV illumination. Proper eye protection is mandatory when viewing gels by UV light. Standard black-and-white Polaroid photographs are obtained with a photograph stand and instant film (see Note 11). Expected PCR product sizes are as follows (Fig. 3A)

Gel Electrophoresis Analysis and Vacuum Blot Transfer of AML1Eto Pcr Products

Following electrophoresis, observe and photograph the gel under UV illumination. Proper eye protection is mandatory when viewing gels by UV light. Standard black-and-white Polaroid photographs are rendered with a photograph stand and instant film (see Note 11). Expected PCR product sizes are as follows (Fig. 4)

Creativity in Science

When many people are asked about creative activities, they inevitably conjure up artistic creations poems, novels, photographs, plays, sculptures, songs, etc. And if asked if they are creative they often say no precisely because they are not involved in such activities. Yet creativity is hardly the sole province of art. Creative thought and behavior happen in any and all domains of life, from cooking, building, and surviving to science. Indeed, science ranks up there with art as an occupation that would not exist if it were not for creative ideas and creative solutions to problems.

Uncontrolled Direct Retrieval A Case Study

In an attempt to by-pass CR's compromised RH retrieval networks and directly access the SEMs and CEMs she cannot generatively access we introduced her to a SenseCam, a prototype device produced by Microsoft that can be used to record and later cue memories in people with amnesia. The SenseCam is a small camera that is worn around the neck, taking a series of fish-lense color photographs in response to the movements and sensory experiences of the person wearing the device. One of the key features of the SenseCam is that it sees what the wearer sees and because it responds to movement and light changes it specifically records moments, however incidental, that are likely to be salient to that person. As we will see, what SenseCam does is create effective cues for memory. The interesting feature of CR is the overwhelming evidence that she does indeed store many episodic details about the events in her life, but under normal circumstances she loses access to these and therefore presents...

Exercise Echocardiogram

The chest computed tomography (CT) is a more sophisticated type of x-ray in which scanning x-ray beams are used to take pictures of the chest from several different angles and provide a two- or three-dimensional view of the heart, lungs, and chest. Chest CTs are very useful for evaluating various abnormalities. In general, the test can be particularly helpful in evaluating conditions like aortic aneurysm, aortic dissection, and fluid around the heart.

Social Skills Training

The social skills facilitator uses role-playing, discussions, games, and activities to develop social understanding, teamwork, empathy, and improved interpersonal relationships. One technique used to enhance social skills is called Social Stories, developed by Carol Gray. Social Stories are short narratives that parents use to teach children how to respond appropriately in typical situations. For example, a story teaches children when to say thank you, when to wash their hands, how to share toys, or how to follow mealtime or classroom routines. Social Stories are usually written in the first person by a therapist, teacher, or parent and can include pictures, photographs, or music. Video modeling works in much the same way as Social Stories to demonstrate appropriate social skills. Another social skills technique called peer modeling places children with ASDs in play situations with typical same-age children who model appropriate play behavior. A therapist facilitates the interaction....

The Development Of Face Perception

A basic measure of infant face recognition is the ability to discriminate the face of one's own mother from the face of another woman. In behavioral paradigms, evidence of recognition of the mother's face can vary both with age and with dependent measure. De Haan and colleagues studied the ability of 6-month-old infants to recognize their own mother (de Haan and Nelson, 1997). In a preferential looking paradigm, 6-month-old infants spent an equivalent amount of time fixating on their own mother's face and on a stranger's face. However, ERP measures in this same age group showed that processing of the mother's face was different from that of a stranger's face. Specifically, the amplitude of the Nc component, a negative deflection occurring between 400 and 800 msec poststimulus, was larger in response to photographs of the infant's own mother, compared to a photograph of another infant's mother (de Haan and Nelson, 1997). This effect was observed over midline and right anterior...

Strategy Motivated Thinking

This question was addressed in several studies by Liberman, Molden, Idson, and Higgins (2001 ). One important instance of considering alternatives occurs when people form hypotheses about what they are perceiving (see Tversky, Chap. 10). Therefore, Liberman et al. (2001) examined the effects of people's strategic preferences on a task where people identified vague and distorted objects in a series of photographs. Across several studies in which a promotion or prevention focus was both measured as an individual differences variable and induced experimentally, results indicated that those in a promotion focus generated a greater number of alternatives for the identity of the objects than those in a prevention focus (see also Crowe & Higgins, 1997).

Family Based Interventions

The mental health consultant may find that other pragmatic interventions, such as referrals for family members to other supportive specialties (e.g., lactation support, massage therapy), are often beneficial in bolstering existing supports and enhancing depleted coping resources. The consultant may employ simple yet meaningful strategies, such as encouraging parents to display photographs of their child and family, a practice that parents report serves both to motivate staff and to comfort themselves (Macnab et al. 1997). Transfer anxiety that is, unanticipated anxiety and distress around the child's transfer from the PICU to a medical unit or discharge home, notwithstanding recognition and relief that the move represents overall improvement is often seen in families of PICU patients and may be ameliorated with preparation that includes verbal and or written information about what to expect during and following the transfer or discharge, together with concrete suggestions about...

Mechanical testing machine

A miniature testing machine that could be manipulated under a stereoscopic microscope was developed to carry out tensile and compression tests on the PDL. A schematic diagram of the testing machine is shown in Figure 2.3. The rotation of a stepping motor that was controlled by a personal computer was transmitted to a precise translation stage. The rate of translation was 500 xm per revolution, and the ratio of revolution to number of pulses fed to the motor was controlled in the range of 1 500 to 1 125,000. A force to deform the specimen by the stage was applied via a load cell. Signals from the load cell were stored in the personal computer after passing through a strain amplifier and an A D converter. The deformation of the specimen was measured by a laser displacement meter that detected the distance from a reflector fixed to a sample holder with a resolution of 0.2 xm. The deformation signals were also stored in the computer. Photographs of the testing machine are shown in Figure...

Mechanical tests on the PDL

Fourteen samples were divided into two groups and subjected to tensile or compression tests at six different speeds of deformation (0.014, 0.14, 1.4, 14, 140, 700 xm s). Before each test, five preconditioning cycles were carried out at a deformation speed of 14 xm s with a maximum load of 50 gf. The load-deformation curves obtained were converted into stress-strain curves using data on the thickness and cross-sectional area of each PDL sample, which were measured in the photographs described in the previous section. All the experiments were performed at a room temperature of 23 2 C.

Similarity of Cognitive Processes

Logically, it is possible that humor production is more strongly related to divergent thinking, whereas humor appreciation might be more strongly related to convergent thinking. Some evidence that humor production is related to divergent thinking was provided by research of Peter Derks. Participants made up funny captions for still photographs from old movies, and their responses were judged by peers. Results showed that the best captions for people instructed to give quantity and not be critical were rated funnier than for those aiming for quality. There was also an indication of improved quality of the captions as the participants continued to make them up. Providing even more evidence for divergent thinking, the participants showed no evidence of running out of ideas for more than 10 minutes, regardless of whether caption production was guided by a goal of quantity or quality. Originality was also high, because

Humor as a Form of Creativity

In surveying the humor-creativity literature, it is clear that several authors have assumed that humor is simply a type of creativity without examining the basis for that assumption. In fact, some studies of creativity have used the production of captions for a cartoon, drawing, or picture as the only measure of creativity. Valuable information can, however, be obtained from this approach. As mentioned earlier, Derks asked college students to make up funny captions for still photographs from old movies, and these responses were judged by peers. In a subsequent study in 1988 over half the captions were evaluated as 'relevant incongruities,' that is, attempts at humor. More recently Kozbelt and Nishioka used similar results to argue that humor production is divergent. They also found that humor appreciation depended on insight aided by hints and was, therefore, convergent.

Precordial Movement And Palpation

Photographs of a 16-year-old boy with Fallot's tetralogy and Poland syndrome. A, The left chest is mildly flattened (arrow). B, Raising the arms exaggerates the appearance of agenesis of the left pectoralis major muscle (arrow) with lateral displacement of the nipple. Compare with the normal right chest. Photographs of a 16-year-old boy with Fallot's tetralogy and Poland syndrome. A, The left chest is mildly flattened (arrow). B, Raising the arms exaggerates the appearance of agenesis of the left pectoralis major muscle (arrow) with lateral displacement of the nipple. Compare with the normal right chest.

Abd El Salam El Askary

Therapeutic protocol of immediate implant installation entails careful patient selection, which is a key factor in achieving a successful clinical outcome, depending on individual circumstances such as medical and dental histories. After patient selection, clinical documentation such as photographs, study casts, and periapical and panoramic radiographs (if necessary) might be made in critical conditions a computerized tomography of the proposed implant sites may be created (Becker 2005).

The Quantum Leap and Other Ventures

After divorcing Fortune, Mead married anthropologist Gregory Bateson, whom she and Fortune met in New Guinea. The last years of Mead's intensive field work involved joint endeavors with Bateson in Bali and Iatmul. During this period they advanced ideas of anthropological record keeping by investing in equipment that permitted taking pictures in rapid succession. This allowed the photographs to constitute visual field notes that could be integrated with the corresponding verbal record - a procedure that Mead referred to as a 'quantum leap' and that has been hailed by other anthropologists for its inventiveness.

Prevention of Toothwear

The general dental practitioner has an important role in advising the patient about their diet, treating symptoms, and monitoring any further tooth loss with study models and photographs. A silicone index of an earlier model can be used to assess rapid toothwear, but often only specific teeth are affected. Only by controlling the etiological factors can further toothwear be reduced, and only when the etiological factors are controlled can treatment be effective. Giving the patient a diet sheet to record their total food consumption over a 3-day period can be a good basis upon which to begin discussion with them. This can be followed by counseling them to avoid erosive foods and

Management of the Extraction Patient

Require extractions, this information is relayed to the parents and patient immediately. The patient and parents are then prepared if the final preferred treatment plan includes extractions. As with every patient, intraoral photographs are presented at the consultation to illustrate the crowding. It is usually obvious to the family that there is no room for all of the teeth. The precise teeth to be extracted are then indicated. After all is said and done, the best way to demonstrate the advantages of extractions for patients with bimaxillary prognathism is to show facial photographs of another patient to demonstrate dramatic profile changes before and after treatment.

Appendix Exercises for the Eye and Mind

Seek examples of their use by visiting shops, observing products and structures in the street, stations and museums. Prepare a commentary, with sketches rather than photographs, bringing out the way the material has been used, the forms that it has allowed and the associations and perceptions its use has created.

Listing Pleasurable Activities

(Examples taking a walk, going to a church or synagogue group, playing a musical instrument, walking the dog, watching a TV program, going to the library, talking on the phone to a friend, talking to a therapist, playing a sport, watching a comedy movie, having sex, riding a bicycle, visiting the Humane Society, listening to music, practicing a hobby, sitting in a cafe, cooking, driving, sewing, dancing, working at a homeless shelter, writing in a journal, taking photographs, taking a class, painting or drawing, soaking in the bathtub, eating at a restaurant, listening to a relaxation tape, shopping, hiking, gardening, praying, meditating, going for a swim, eating lunch outside, attending a lecture, washing your face or hair, lying out in the sun, playing with a pet)

The Electrophysiology Laboratory For Recording Eeg And Erps

Both the volunteer and the screen are inside an electrically shielded cubicle (B), which functions as a Faraday cage (C in Fig. 1B). In order to allow the height of the screen to be adjusted according to the individual's height, the screen (A) shown in Fig. 1B is situated on a height-adjustable support (D) fixed to a table (E), the height of this latter also being adjustable. The table has two blockable wheels to allow the distance from the observer to be altered easily, depending on the requirements of the experiment. An infrared digital videocamera with adjustable focus (F) is fixed to the monitor of the stimulator. This videocamera photographs the volunteer and

HIVAssociated Central Nervous System Disorders Children

The evaluation of the HIV-1-infected child with neurological involvement requires the clinical skills and major diagnostic tools of the neurologist. y.' The approach to the diagnosis of HIV-1-associated CNS disease, including differential diagnosis (secondary complications co-morbid complications), involves a careful medical and developmental history, HIV-1 systemic disease history, current immunological status, neurological examination, psychological assessment, and neuroimaging studies.y.' , 'i The diagnosis of HIV-1-associated PE is relatively straightforward, if the patient has been followed prospectively. Longitudinal assessments of the infant or child reveal progressive involvement. The diagnosis is also fairly straightforward if the child on initial examination is found to have motor deficits (spasticity, ataxia, weakness, abnormalities of tone, change in gait, etc.), and by a careful history, either the new onset or progression of motor impairment can be documented...

How do I cope with common activities outside the house that used to seem so simple such as going to the grocery store

- New Situations Prepare your child for new experiences by showing pictures or photographs of where he is going. Make a visual and or written schedule using pictures from books or magazines or even draw pictures of your own to demonstrate the sequence of events. For example, if you are going to the zoo, you can include pictures of the family in different scenarios, such as in the car, paying the entrance fee, looking at the animals, and so on. Visual schedules can also be used for vacations, birthday parties, and other unfamiliar situations. - Haircuts Prepare your child in advance by talking him through the steps at home, demonstrating with your own hands what is going to happen at the barbershop, and showing what items will be used, such as shampoo, a comb, scissors, or a blow dryer. You can also make up an individual schedule or calendar for your child that shows a photo of the barbershop, indicating when and where the haircut will take place. Use a more detailed picture schedule...

Camera Clubs and Camera Notes 18901903

There were hundreds of camera clubs in the United States at the turn of the century. These were the days before the Polaroid and the digital camera and camera fans needed dark rooms to develop film and places to take portraits and advice on how to use the new and popular technology. Photo-making absorbed Americans from all walks of life. Stieglitz, because of his European education and recognized expertise, seized the leadership of a major camera club in New York, the Society of American Amateur Photographers, and became its president in 1890-1891.

The Little Galleries of the Photo Secession 291

Steichen, 15 years younger than Stieglitz, was admired much by the older artist who called him 'his man' when they met. Steichen became one of several key colleague-advisors who influenced him and helped him mount shows over the years. Stieglitz embraced him and welcomed him into his family. When Stieglitz separated from the Camera Club, he trusted Steichen's judgment and took his advice about turning the Steichen studio into a gallery where paintings as well as photographs could be hung. Steichen planned to return to France and promised that he would get a Rodin drawing exhibition for 291 - the show, hung in January of 1908, marked the beginning of systematically initiating and expanding the public's taste for modernism.

The Information Revolution

As news stories in the popular press have shown, evidence gathered from the Internet or from personal computers and data storage logs is playing an increasingly important role in investigations and court hearings, particularly in the area of criminal justice and law enforcement. Judges and prosecutors have used defendants' social networking profiles and unflattering photos on those sites in consideration for sentencing. In one case, a college student who seriously injured a woman in a drunk-driving accident was photographed at a Halloween party shortly following the accident, dressed in a prisoner costume and grinning. Someone posted the photographs on Facebook, and a victim of the crash forwarded them to the prosecutor. The judge sentenced the young man to a 2-year prison sentence, noting the defendant's evident lack of remorse or concern in the photos (Tucker 2008). In a recent murder trial, a witness for the prosecution produced digital evidence that the defendant had been...

The OKeeffe Years 19161946

After his divorce, they married because he wanted marriage. She maintained her name. Several years into their relationship and after their marriage, O'Keeffe became severely depressed. She had already achieved considerable recognition and was financially secure yet her life and marriage unraveled. She recovered and her dependency on Stieglitz lessened she knew the worst side of him as well as his genius for encouragement. She stayed in the marriage until his death but spent significantly less time in New York and found a second home in New Mexico. In 1929 he established his last gallery, An American Place, which remained open until one month before his death in 1946. He showed his own photographs and those of Ansel Adams and Eliot Porter as well as the regulars of the Stieglitz circle.

Conclusion and Future Directions

Avenue for future research would be to test whether a premorbid deficit in executive control predicts intrusive memories after real-life traumatic events. For example, prospective studies of soldiers tested before and after deployment to a war zone might establish whether poor resistance to PI is a vulnerability factor for persistent intrusive memories. This may add knowledge to earlier prospective investigations (e.g., Parslow & Jorm, 2007 Gilbertson et al., 2006) which explored PTSD-related deficits in larger test batteries without focusing on the role of specific executive abilities. To keep measurement as sensitive as possible, future work may combine several individual indices of resistance to PI in order to construct a latent variable (cf. Friedman & Miyake, 2004) as a predictor of persistent intrusions after trauma exposure. In addition, to further test the idea that a specific inability to disengage attention from perceptual trauma reminders might underlie persistent intrusive...

What Practitioners Say It Does

As proof of this phenomenon, practitioners claim that patients with the same illness have similar auras. Conditions identifiable through Kirlian photographs span the medical spectrum. Nutritional deficiencies, mental illness, substance abuse, organ weakness, cancer and other disorders are all said to show their presence in energy fields. Even states of mind such as confusion and anxiety are claimed to be apparent in Kirlian photographs.

Research Evidence to Date

Rumanian researchers in 1978 claimed that they could detect differences in Kirlian photographs between cancerous and nonmalignant tumors, and said they could detect breast cancer using Kirlian photography with complete accuracy. This approach is claimed by some proponents also to diagnose asthma. Individuals with asthma, they contend, have auras with a recognizable wispy pattern. Claims of the diagnostic value of auras are not taken seriously by scientists.

Performance requirements for military flight suits

From high-heat-flux thermal exposures. To determine performance requirements and needs of the user group, Tan et al. (1998) followed a systematic functional apparel design process developed by DeJonge (1984) building on work by Jones (1981). Designing a protective garment that incorporates relevant factors is a complex task that involves objectifying the design process so that the resulting garment meets specifications. DeJonge's process is a comprehensive, externalized, strategy-controlled approach that attempts to overcome complex design problems and allows a thorough exploration of the design situation including problem structure, development of design criteria and specifications, exploration of the interactions of the specifications, and development and critical evaluation of a prototype. As part of this design process, Tan et al. conducted a market analysis and material and garment analyses, observed video tapes and photographs of previous manikin testing of thermal protective...

Interpretation of Results

Specimens are determined to be wild type, heterozygous mutant, or homozygous mutant based on amplicon fragment sizes following restriction enzyme digestion. Figures 1-3 contain schematics that illustrate the locations and sizes of restriction fragments in normal and mutant alleles. Photographs in Figs. 1-3 of EtBr-stained, 12.5 polyacrylamide gels show those fragments necessary for assignment of genotypes.

Noninvasive scintigraphic techniques

High-speed direct laser imaging also precisely measures aerodynamic size distribution, shape, and velocity distribution of drug aerosol particles (Oxford Lasers, 2008). Figure 9.9 illustrates the imaging setup. A short flash of light from a diode laser illuminates a screen, which creates a bright background behind the subject aerosol plume. The short pulse from the laser freezes the motion, allowing blur-free visualization of particle size and shape. Images from the digital camera are transferred to a computer. The high-speed real-time particle sizing software analyzes the images obtained to generate the size distributions. This non-intrusive measurement method is very useful to help understand the nozzle effects, and formation of aerosols from MDIs and nasal sprays.

Eye Problems in Childhood and Their Influence on

When Matthew Brady (American, c. 1823-96) was a teenager, he also had a severe eye inflammation and turned to art. While making a trip to find medical care, Brady met the painter William Page, who encouraged the boy and gave him art lessons. Later, in his twenties, Brady changed from painting to photography. With diminished sight, he needed assistance to focus the camera and adjust the dials but it was he, who arranged the poses, composition, and lighting. Although Brady is well known for his portraits of Abraham Lincoln, his most famous photographs are of the Civil War. While both Ryder and Brady had lifelong vision difficulties, sometimes an eyesight correction can turn a child to art.

Transversus Abdominis

Transverse Abdominis Muscle Shape

Oblique help to draw the posterior rib cage toward the anterior iliac crest, and in so doing, they tend to extend, not to flex, the thoracic spine. The photographs on page 71 indicate the line of pull of the posterolateral fibers of the external oblique in good alignment and the elongation of these fibers in faulty positions.

Specific Cross Cultural Perspectives

The fastest-growing minority group in the United States comprises the Spanish-speaking peoples from various parts of the western hemisphere Puerto Rico, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Mexico and other Central American countries, and South America. The Latinos residing in the United States are one of the youngest of the ethnic groups. In Census 2000, 35.7 of people in the Hispanic Latino group were younger than 18 years of age. Demographers have predicted, on the basis of the Latinos' young age, their high fertility rate, and their migratory patterns, that by 2010 they would become the largest ethnic group in the United States, accounting for 42 of the population. Although bonded by a common language and grouped together by their Spanish surnames, the Latino group has great heterogeneity and diversity in its many different traditions. Although Spanish has no dialects, many words may carry different meanings for various Latino groups, depending on their community of origin. The...

Rationale for Treatment

These photographs show a panty girdle with a strap approximately 3 inches wide attached to the girdle with three strips of Velcro. One piece is attached at the center posteriorly, and one is attached on either side an-terolaterally. The strap stays in place both in sitting and in standing. If the subject is wearing a corset for a low back problem, the strap can be attached to that garment.

Endocrine And Metabolic Diseases

Acute Acromegaly

Acromegaly is detected by looking at the head and the hands. These patients have a lantern jaw, coarsening of the facial features (best determined by comparing old photographs), widely spaced teeth, macroglossia, and spade-shaped hands (Fig. 8) Acromegaly is associated with hypertension of the low-renin type (89). There is an increased incidence of premature coronary atherosclerosis in acromegaly because of coexistent diabetes and hypertension.

Vertebrobasilar Stroke Syndromes

Infarction in the distribution of the callosal branches of the PCA involving the left occipital region and the splenium of the corpus callosum produces alexia without agraphia.y In this syndrome, patients can write, speak, and spell normally. However, they are unable to read words and sentences. Naming of letters and numbers may be intact. However, there can be inability to name colors, objects, and photographs. y Right hemispheric PCA territory infarctions may cause contralateral visual field neglect. Amnesia may be present with PCA infarctions that involve the left medial temporal lobe or when there are bilateral mesiotemporal infarctions. In addition, an agitated delirium may occur with bilateral penetrating mesiotemporal infarctions. Large infarctions of the left posterior temporal artery territory may produce an anomic or transcortical sensory aphasia (see Chapter.6 ). 58

Back Extensors Testing And Grading

Thoracic Extensors

Outlines of the basic features have been made from photographs. Drawings of the femur and pelvis and a dotted line representing part of the vertebral column have been added. The solid line from the anterosuperior spine to the symphysis pubis is the line of reference for the pelvis. A dotted line parallel to the solid line has been drawn through the pelvis to the hip joint, and this line continues as a reference line through the femur to indicate the angle of the hip joint (i.e., the angle of flexion) at the various stages of movement.

An Error in Cell Division or The Power of Positive Diagnosis

These circumstances are particularly dramatic when they entail a diagnosis made by ultrasound, rather than through chromosome studies.41 Visualizations are presented on a monitor quite similar to the ubiquitous television screen, and their impact is instantaneous. They hold a powerful place in women's narratives, and are recalled far more vividly than the caterpillar stick figures of karyotype photographs (cf. Drugan, Greb et al. 1990). In the cases where spina bifida, anencephaly, or life-threatening heart, lung, and kidney problems were visualized, women from diverse sociocultural backgrounds seen at the full range of New York's hospitals told virtually the same story The calendar of grief may extend across a whole social generation. Genetic counselors at Middle showed me an eloquent letter they received from a woman whose son was born with multiple congenital anomalies more than a decade earlier and died two hours after birth. At the time, the mother was so distraught that she...

Kruskal Wallis test for independent measures

The Kruskal-Wallis test performs an analysis that is very similar to an analysis of variance on the ranks. The test is performed when the assumptions of the parametric ANOVA cannot be made. An example of such data occurs in the following illustration. A researcher was interested in differences in attractiveness and the selection of candidates for jobs. As well as examining female attractiveness a number of experiments were undertaken on male attractiveness. One of the questions considered was whether different types of facial hair led to different judgements of male attractiveness by women. A female personnel officer in a large company agreed to rate photographs of men's faces on attractiveness on a 0 to 50 scale, with a high value indicating a high level of attractiveness. Out of a large pool of photographs of different men, five men with beards, five men with moustaches and five clean shaven men were randomly selected. (The photographs in the pool had been matched on age, hairstyle...

How Methodology Bleeds into Daily Life

Agendas of prenatal testing, and how are they enacted for and by different individuals and communities How are popular understandings of genetics and inheritance shaped in contemporary America What does scientific literacy mean in a culture as deeply stratified as our own I have worked on these problems as an anthropologist and as a feminist activist for more than a decade. In learning about the social impact and cultural meaning of prenatal diagnosis, I have used standard anthropological methods of participant observation. That professional umbrella is a catchall label for hands-on research that is open-ended, and locates the researcher as far into the experiences of the people whose lives are touched by the topic as she can figure out how to go. My methods have been as conventional as sitting through medical school lectures or interviewing candidates for prenatal diagnosis in English, Spanish, and sometimes French as arcane as learning to recognize and cut up laboratory photographs...

Patent Ductus Arteriosus

Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathy

Photographs of a female infant with patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defect, and the physical appearance of trisomy 18 with lax skin and overlapping fingers (clinodactyly) (B). Rocker bottom feet (in A) are not well shown. Photographs of a female infant with patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defect, and the physical appearance of trisomy 18 with lax skin and overlapping fingers (clinodactyly) (B). Rocker bottom feet (in A) are not well shown. A, Photographs of a 28-year-old woman with patent ductus arteriosus, suprasystemic pulmonary vascular resistance, and reversed shunt. The upper photograph shows the patient sitting with her hands placed on the dorsum of her feet. The right hand is acyanotic and the digits are not clubbed. The left hand is mildly cyanotic and the thumb is clubbed. The toes are cyanotic and clubbed. In the close-up (lower photograph), the right hand is acyanotic and the thumb is not clubbed (arrow). The left hand is mildly cyanotic and the...

The Role of Chemotherapy in Larynx Organ Preservation

Laryngeal Cancer Treatment

Photographs of a larynx cancer treated with chemotherapy radiotherapy with larynx preservation intent. A, Pre-treatment B, Post-treatment. Figure 22-1. Photographs of a larynx cancer treated with chemotherapy radiotherapy with larynx preservation intent. A, Pre-treatment B, Post-treatment.

Physical Attractiveness in Performance Appraisal and Promotions

Consistent with survey results, field studies have also have shown a small to moderate bias in appraisals and promotions against unattractive employees (Bentz, 1985 Dickey-Bryant, Lautenschlager, Mendoza, & Abrahams, 1986 Ross & Ferris, 1981). Ross and Ferris (1981) rated the facial attractiveness of male employees in two public accounting firms from photographs. They then regressed salary, performance evaluations, and likelihood of making partner on ratings of attractiveness and also weight, tenure, academic training, marital status, rated motivation, attitudes, and height. Weight was strongly related to relative performance (i.e., rated performance relative to their cohort). The heavier the employees relative to their height, the more negative the ratings of their performance. Both height and facial attractiveness were positively related to the rated likelihood of making partner, but failed to predict salary, achieved performance appraisals, or ratings of relative performance....

Temperature control during oocyte retrieval

Cook Minc Incubator

Figure 9.7 Photographs illustrating various aspects of the oocyte retrieval process at the Institute for Reproductive Medicine and the Psychosomatics of Sterility (Vienna, Austria). See Table 9.2 for detailed explanation. Figure 9.7 Photographs illustrating various aspects of the oocyte retrieval process at the Institute for Reproductive Medicine and the Psychosomatics of Sterility (Vienna, Austria). See Table 9.2 for detailed explanation.

Surgical Resection Of Tumor And Other Types Of Mass Lesions

FIGURE 73-15 Intraoperative photographs demonstrating the surgical removal of an ulnar nerve neurofibroma in the distal forearm. Intraoperative stimulating and recording techniques were used to help in delineating the nonfunctional tumor (T) from the functioning ulnar nerve (N). A, Black arrows point to sutures placed to demarcate the tumor nerve border. B, Using microsurgical techniques and the Cav-itron (cu) set at low power, the nonfunctional tumor is being aspirated away from the parent nerve. C, Residual tumor cavity (Ca) lined with functioning nerve fibers. (Reproduced with permission from Grossman RG, Loftus CM (eds) Principles of Neurosurgery, 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Lippincott-Raven, 1999.) FIGURE 73-15 Intraoperative photographs demonstrating the surgical removal of an ulnar nerve neurofibroma in the distal forearm. Intraoperative stimulating and recording techniques were used to help in delineating the nonfunctional tumor (T) from the functioning ulnar nerve (N). A, Black...

Tests For Length Of Lumbricales And Interossei

Pronator Teres Muscle Length Test

In this case, illustrated by the above photographs, a middle-aged woman presented with a complaint that her middle finger occasionally pained rather severely and that a constant, tight, drawing feeling was felt along the sides of this finger. She did not feel that the pain was actually in the joints of the finger. A medical checkup had revealed no arthritis. This person was an avid card player, and the condition was present in the left hand, which was the hand in which she held her cards.

Child With Overdeveloped Muscles

Swayback External Knee Rotation

This is used to measure the difference in level of the posterior iliac spines. It also may be used to detect any differences in shoulder level. A background with squares (as shown in many of the photographs) is a more practical aid in detecting differences in shoulder level.

How Successful Is Facial Approximation

Facial Approximation

This was borne out by a recent study by one of the present authors of a longitudinal series of frontal photographs of the same individuals from birth to 20 years of age. It established statistically that most individuals could be correctly identified from the age of about 5 years by an independent observer, even though the growth of the lower part of the face has not taken place. The ultimate proportions of the face are indeterminate until the prepubertal growth spurt, after which the probability of recognition increases with age until adulthood (Craig et al. 2004). To photograph and scan the result into a computer will allow details to be added that humanize the face and make it more lifelike. Full-frontal and profile photographs will allow features such as hairstyles, moustaches, and beards to be displayed. Any jewelry, eyeglasses, or other personal adornments found with the body can be added to personalize the image. Image processing software such as Adobe Photoshop is used to...

Clinical Presentations

M entered analysis with only vague awareness of the impact of her considerable history of neglect and abuse in childhood. The opening phase was marked by a struggle to free associate (say whatever was on her mind) and the bringing in of photographs and scrapbooks as a means of telling the analyst the story of her painful history. As memories of sexual abuse by her grandfather came into focus, she developed severe abdominal pain, suicidal preoccupation, and hopelessness that all served to enrage her. Just as she had felt toward the mother who neglected her, Ms. M felt the analyst was sadistically subjecting her to these humiliating feelings that interfered with her ability to maintain the little bit of equilibrium she had gained in life. Efforts by the analyst to work interpretively with the intense negative transference did not quiet the symptoms that threatened to end the therapy, and antidepressant treatment was offered. This led to enough mood stability that Ms. M could...

Artists with Macular Degeneration

For most of her life, Georgia O'Keeffe (American, 18871986) had excellent vision but in her later years, she developed wet macular degeneration in both eyes along with a rupture of capillaries in the retina of her left eye. Faced with diminishing vision, O'Keeffe started to simplify her forms. She also worked from photographs and from her memory saying, You paint from your subject, not what you see. For a while, O'Keeffe, like Degas, turned to sculpture, but she returned to painting, stating that it was central to her life.

Physical Attractiveness as a Factor in Selection Judgments

In one of the first field demonstrations of attractiveness effects, Carroll (1966) examined the relationship of attractiveness to the success of graduating business students in finding employment. Handsomeness of the applicant was rated by three judges from photographs. Of 19 characteristics used as predictors in this study (e.g., age, grades, major), only appearance, marital status, and work experience were related to success in job-hunting the strongest relationship was for appearance. The more handsome the applicant, the more visit offers received, the higher the job-visit ratio, and the higher the score on a composite criterion of job-hunting success.

Ocular Misalignment Syndromes

In the setting of major head trauma, the dorsal midbrain and both fourth nerves are impacted in the niche of the tentorium cerebelli, and both nerves tend to be contused together. Because of bilateral injury to the ascending reticular formation, the patient is usually unconscious for a protracted period of time after the injury, following which there are complaints of vertical double vision. On examination, a relative elevation of the right eye (right hypertropia) in left gaze and relative elevation of the left eye (left hypertropia) in right gaze can be found. This reversal of vertical deviation indicates bilateral fourth cranial nerve palsies. Unilateral fourth nerve palsy sometimes follows minor head trauma, and there is reason to believe that many of these cases represent decompensation of longstanding or congenital fourth nerve palsy that was not symptomatic. The mechanism of this occurrence is unclear, but it is important to ask patients with this disorder to bring in childhood...

Evaluation Guidelines Table82

Color stereo disc photographs aid frequently in the management of patients with optic disc swelling and pseudopapilledema due to disc drusen, for instance. Fluorescein angiography highlights the choroidal and retinal vasculature and involves intravenous injection of an aqueous fluorescein solution. Funduscopic pictures are taken before injection and at specific intervals after injection. This method detects vascular occlusion, abnormal retinal pigmentation or hemorrhages, and disturbances of the retinal pigmented epithelium. Truly swollen discs leak fluorescein, whereas, in general, discs with pseudopapilledema do not.

His Work Empirical Studies

It is essential to emphasize that Picasso's exploratory experiments did not stop with these sketches. Even after he transferred his graphic ideas to the large canvas that was to become the final product, he continued to make major alterations. This fact is apparent in the series of photographs that were taken of the painting in progress. For instance, the photograph of the earliest version of the canvas depicts the fallen warrior with his arm thrust up with a clenched fist. Because this arm and fist dominated the center of the painting, it made the warrior one of the most dominant figures in the composition. Yet this These photographs show another curiosity Picasso would sometimes attach wallpaper collages directly to the canvas. Not only would these come and go, but they would also appear in different places in the composition. The artist was visibly playing around with the possibility of completing the painting in the manner of Synthetic Cubism, but he changed his mind. All told,...

Recommended reading

A super little book that describes normal blood cell morphology in the dog and includes many coloured photographs. It also includes normal ranges of values, haematological definitions and techniques. Other titles in the range cover feline and equine haematology. They are also quite reasonably priced. Contains an excellent chapter on ectoparasitic conditions with brilliant colour photographs.

Warping Of The Average Face

Three female individuals (not included in the average), self-identifying as Europeans, from Melbourne Australia, were photographed and delineated as described in Chapter 6. The average face was then warped to the exact same frontal face shape for each of these three individuals using the averaging software developed by Perrett and colleagues (Benson and Perrett 1992, Penton-Voak et al. 1999, Perrett et al. 1994, Perrett et al. 1998, Perrett and Rowland 1995, Tiddeman et al. 2001) see Figure 11.2(b). Figures 11.2(a, c) show the original and the warped average faces (best-case-scenario facial approximations) for each target individual respectively. Two more facial approximations were generated according to methods described above using face photographs of two other individuals to test for false positives. These individuals were also from Melbourne, Australia. Thus, five best-case-scenario facial approximations were generated in total, including three whose target individuals were used...

Paranoid Schizoid Position Reconstruction

In this chapter, we discussed an original method for creating 3D facial expression postures from front and side photographs using PCA results of a 3D face database containing at present 500 subjects, each with the same set of face postures. The estimated face postures have deformation characteristics similar to subjects registered in the database which are implicitly embedded in the estimated face postures when predicting face deformation from similar faces. This similarity allows us to apply a PCA-based facial motion mapping technique to create a talking-head animation driven by an arbitrary speaker's face motion. In this way we move closer to realizing realistic and perceptibly valid animations of talking heads, still a difficult challenge for the animation community. These methods are important for auditory-visual speech research and applications in natural user-interface design, 3D face modeling, entertainment, and education.

Applications Of Computergraphic Facial Reconstruction

Kuratate in Chapter 17 describes the creation of perceptibly accurate 3D talking head animations from only profile and frontal photographs. This is achieved by transferring face motion from one subject to another and by extracting a small set of feature points common to both photographs and using a small set of principal components to build the facial image on which movements are displayed.

Generation Of The Average Face

We used 130 standardized face photographs of females self-reporting the socially perceived group membership of European (mean age 22.3, sd 4.0 years), to generate average faces used here to represent the face color and texture of the constructed facial approximations. This average face was generated using the refined methods described in Chapter 6. The average female European face is presented below with its respective delineation map (Figure 11.1). (b) The final average face after 130 face photographs of individuals had been warped and blended together.

Facial Motion Mapping

The posture set described in this chapter is primarily focused on providing sufficient information to synthesize and analyze talking heads for perceptible audiovisual speech. Given that we can estimate this set for inanimate 3D faces and for models created from photographs, we can now easily create animations for this class of subjects.

Expression Estimation Results

As the results show, reasonable face expressions are obtained from the database estimation scheme. However, estimating the model from a small number of feature points in the photographs is less accurate than using scanned data with feature lines, causing estimation errors especially around the eye and lip boundaries of the faces.

Estimation Of Face Postures

The faces estimated from photographs were given the same mesh structure as faces in the database, deliberately simplifying the estimation scheme. In addition to photographs, posture estimation is effective for estimating expressions for inanimate models, as illustrated in the next section.

Face Estimation From Partial Face Feature Information

In this section, we describe a general approach to 3D face estimation using the 3D face database, and address the specific case of estimation from photographs. If partial information of a face is obtained, it can be used to estimate the entire face structure using a known relation between a subset of data points and the entire face.

Pain Measurement In Children

A measure of the severity of pain in children may be derived from the child, parents, carers and nursing staff. Ideally, a self-reported measure of pain is the most useful and scales similar to those in adults have been used. Although the VAS or category scales are suitable for most children over the age of 7-8 years old, younger children find the concept difficult to grasp, and some older children may not have the reading or cognitive skills to use it. The 'faces' scale is suitable for a wide age group in children and is simple to use (Fig. 17.10). Several variations of the faces scale have been developed and validated, including the 'Oucher scale', which has a vertical numerical scale on one side and six photographs of childrens' faces representing increasing amounts of pain, starting at no pain (0) and increasing to maximum possible pain (100). It is likely that all the face scales are as effective as each other.

Practical Skills Acquisition Exercises

Laparoscopic intracorporeal suturing represents a difficult task in experienced hands. How then can the average urologist hope to obtain these skills and apply them whenever the situation calls for intracorporeal placement of sutures There are two alternatives. You can either practice utilization of laparoscopic suturing skills or utilize any of the included short cuts discussed in this chapter. If your goal is to obtain skills that can be used time and time again for increasingly complex laparoscopic intracorporeal reconstructions, your time is better spent learning how to suture without opting for short cuts. This can be accomplished by spending time and money at courses or you can utilize simple equipment and practice inanimately at home, the office, or in the operating room. It sounds ridiculous to memorize the 12 steps that we presented in the previous chapter. This only represents a starting place for you to master the choreographed utilization of both of your hands. To do this...

Emergency Department Treatment And Disposition

Document thoroughly all burns that may be due to abuse. Draw sketches and take photographs of the injuries. Obtain a skeletal survey in children under the age of 2 years. Report any suspected abuse immediately to local child protective agency before discharge from the emergency department. Provide standard burn therapy.

Endoscopic Camera Systems and Charged Coupled Device

Digital cameras are classified according to the amount of resolution determined by the number of pixels and the number of charge coupled device chips. The average charge coupled device resolution of single-chip camera ranges between 400,000 and 440,000 pixels, whereas three-chip cameras exceed 450,000 pixels. Display resolution of the cameras ranges between 350 to 450 and 700 horizontal lines for single-chip and three-chip cameras, respectively (4).

Digital Imagingvideo Documentationand Editing

Images captured initially in the analog format could later be converted digitally using a digital camera or scanner. However, the introduction of digital still cameras has taken image documentation and editing to a new level. Currently, the newest surgical video systems have integrated digital image capture system, allowing immediate capturing of still images from endoscopic procedures (Fig. 5) (3). Alternatively, a less-expensive digital still image capture adapter can be connected to endoscopic camera systems (6). Digital still images can usually be recorded in Joint Photographic Experts Group or JPEG, tagged image file format or TIFF, or bitmap formats. These digital images can be edited and optimized on the computer using various graphic software packages.

Scapholunate Instability

Figure 40-5 Watson's scaphoid shift test. A and B, Clinical photographs of Watson's scaphoid shift test. C and D, Diagram of Watson's scaphoid shift test. (From Cooney WP, Linscheid RL, Dobyns JH The Wrist. St. Louis, Mosby, 1997, p 258.) Figure 40-5 Watson's scaphoid shift test. A and B, Clinical photographs of Watson's scaphoid shift test. C and D, Diagram of Watson's scaphoid shift test. (From Cooney WP, Linscheid RL, Dobyns JH The Wrist. St. Louis, Mosby, 1997, p 258.)

Dislocation or Subluxation

Figure 69-1 Intraoperative photographs of longitudinal peroneus brevis tear requiring tubularization. A, Planned incision along the course of the peroneal tendons B, identified tear in the peroneus brevis C, tubularized tendon D, debrided portion. Figure 69-1 Intraoperative photographs of longitudinal peroneus brevis tear requiring tubularization. A, Planned incision along the course of the peroneal tendons B, identified tear in the peroneus brevis C, tubularized tendon D, debrided portion.

Biomechanical analysis Offlineonline digitization

Offline systems are based on video recordings. Normally, analog video signals are stored on tape and later sampled by a computer with a so-called frame-grabber. Video recordings from digital cameras can also be input to a computer by commercial interface devices. Once the video sequences exist in digital form in a computer, they can be processed frame by frame by specially dedicated software. Usually contrasting markers are placed at anatomic landmarks on the subject and these can then be digitized manually or semiautomatically to obtain x,y-coordinates from each frame. If the software can identify a large number of markers on most of the frames the process of offline digitization may be fairly fast, meaning for example 30-40 min for 400 frames corresponding to a gait cycle of 80 frames per camera and five cameras.

Stereoscopic and Photorefractive Tests

The use of photorefractive apparatus is relatively new. Reproducible results of photography of the red reflex can screen the nonverbal infant or child. The sensitivity is high (95 ) for refractive error in the range of 1.00 to 2.00 diopters. A problem with this technique is that cycloplegia is usually required to prevent obtaining false-positive results, especially for myopia. In addition, two photographs are needed to avoid missing an astigmatic refractive error. The technology offers great promise, but it must be cost-effective. As newer, more rapid and accurate vision tests are developed, these may be incorporated into the screening process.


Cover photographs (Top) Richard Feynman, Nobel prize winner in physics, lecturing on quantum mechanics (courtesy of the Archives, California Institute of Technology, photo 1.10-118). In this photo, Feynman demonstrates the value of communicating with gestures. Gestures and other aspects of delivery are discussed in Chapter 5. (Bottom left) Lightning demonstration at the Deutsches Museum in Munich, Germany (courtesy of the Deutsches Museum). In this demonstration, a lightning bolt strikes a church that is not well grounded. Because the church is not well grounded, a second stroke occurs between the church and a nearby house. Demonstrations and other visual aids are discussed in Chapter 4. (Bottom right) Poster presentation of capstone design projects at Pennsylvania State University (courtesy of the Learning Factory, Pennsylvania State University, 2001). The design of posters is discussed in Appendix B.


I would like to give particular thanks to Melissa Mew for her immense assistance in editing the book all the contributors for their contributions and editing suggestions Dr Iris Musa and Mary Warren for permitting us to include their figures in the book the College of Occupational Therapists Specialist Section Neurological Practice for funding to enable us to update the book and last but not least, my long-suffering husband, Mr Paul Fowler, not only for acting as a model for the dressing photographs but also for his endless support and patience during the time taken to update this book.


In suspected cases of abuse, the assessment includes a thorough history, physical examination, and functional, cognitive, and mental health assessments. The patient and the caregiver should be interviewed alone and separately (Abbey, 2009). Documentation begins with the description of the abusive or neglectful event, using the patient's words whenever possible. The duration, frequency, and severity of the abuse should be recorded. If injuries are present, a detailed description of the injuries and photographs, if available, should be documented. Assessment of functional dependence can be helpful in recommending resources, whereas evaluation of cognitive impairment is important in assessing both risk and capacity. The assessment should also include a mental health screening, with particular attention to depression, anxiety, insomnia, and alcohol abuse.


Charles demonstrated considerable skill in mathematics and in 1851 he entered Christ Church, Oxford, as a student. He spent the rest of his life there. In keeping with the family tradition he entered Oxford with the plan to be ordained. However, his diary entries indicate considerable ambivalence regarding the matter. He was ordained a Deacon but finally in 1862 he made the official decision to not take the priestly orders. As faculty at Oxford he had difficulty as a teacher probably due in part to his stammer. His diary entries indicate his interest in theater and he published parodies in various magazines under the name of Lewis Carroll. During his early years at Oxford he also developed an interest in photography that he maintained for 25 years. At the time photography had been in existence for 17 years and Charles was 24 years old. He was a pioneer in this new field and he published articles and stories about the subject. Charles had public exhibitions of his photographs and he...

Averaging Faces

One of the limitations to the calculated averages presented in the literature is that the photographic methods used are often not well described, making it difficult to know how representative the face images are of the actual average. It also makes it difficult to repeat the results of these studies and to compare images between studies. Many papers, for example, simply state that frontal photographs, with neutral expression, were digitized (e.g., Langlois et al. 1994, Perrett et al. 1994, Rhodes and Tremewan 1996), while others go as far as saying that faces were also photographed under the same standard lighting conditions (Kujawa and Strzalko 1998, Perrett et al. 1998, Rowland and Perrett 1995) and at standard distances (Langlois and Roggman 1990), but do not specify what the standard conditions actually were. Although it has been suggested that standardization for lighting, view, facial expression, and makeup, is not necessary when making average faces from samples larger than 30...

Future Directions

Many researchers rely on the self-selection of memories by participants and the validity of these memories cannot be verified. Creative approaches to this problem have involved using photos from friends and family members (Gilboa et al., 2004), random beepers (Brewer, 1988), and day-long videotapes of a participant's activities (Mendehlson et al., 2009). One recent technological development that has the potential for researchers to randomly sample real-world memory events is the wearable digital camera, such as Microsoft's SenseCam (see Figure 2.7). The camera is worn by the individual and is fitted with a wide-angle lens that maximizes the frontal field of view. A number of sensors are built into the camera (light, body temperature, accelerometer, color) and any changes in these sensors will cause the camera to take a shot. Hundreds of shots are taken in a day, and the shots can be easily downloaded to a computer. This camera may soon include GPS and audio recording functionality...


Everything around us with the exception of natural things is designed, and even an increasing number of what appear to be natural things are designed. We will use the word 'designing' as the verb and the word 'design' as the noun to distinguish between the process (designing) and the outcome of designing. Designing is the process by which we posit changes to the physical and virtual worlds in which we live through intentional acts. Designed physical objects include architectural, mechanical, industrial, textile, electronic, graphical, and chemical objects, amongst the many physical objects designed. Designed virtual objects include those that exist in virtual environments (e.g., computer games) as well as plans and strategies, processes and conceptual models, representations and systems, and hypotheses and theories. Designing is not a unitary activity and as a consequence cannot be simply explained from a single perspective. The distinguishing feature of designing is that it creates...


Although it is customary to take photographs for record purposes, a lateral profile photograph may also be produced life size on an acetate sheet and superimposed on the cephalogram. If they are matched carefully to the soft tissues on the cephalogram, 'surgery' can be carried out on the photograph. This form of photocephalometric planning has provided a reliable way of demonstrating to the patient the changes that can occur following surgery and predictions using this method are helpful when making a decision as to precisely what changes should be made and whether these are acceptable to the patient. It is essential that the photographs are taken in the natural head position and that there is no posturing. Colour transparencies of the head and neck, both lateral profile positions, full face and with close-ups of the dental occlusion and in a smiling position are desirable. Various tracing methods are used for the photocephalometric planning and the exact method chosen and the...

Treatment Records

Data that is collected from an edentulous patient can be of great value to the treatment plan. Upon teeth loss, the reference to the original teeth shape is lost as well. The search for a reference is then important to give an idea on the shape of the teeth and their inherited surface characters (Baratieri 1998). The data can be collected from old photographs, slides, videotapes, etc. The problem for the clinician who is restoring lost teeth arises when there is no reference to imitate nor any original shape to duplicate. In that case, the patient might receive teeth that do not resemble their original shape or do not satisfy them psychologically. The data gathered from pictures can include the teeth reveal, teeth shape, teeth characters, the existence of diastema, smile arc pattern, and the relationship of the incisal edge to the lower lip. Photographs also may serve as proof of records for future referrals or for future comparison before and after the treatment. (See Figures...

Medical Imaging

Three-dimensional net of intensities of nuclear resonance frequencies in various tissues into images representing the tissues themselves. The physician can then call any two-dimensional slice of this information such that sections of the human body can be viewed, appropriately colored, on a television monitor. The information may also be converted to colored photographs that rival photographs of actual organs in their appearance, and are in general of higher resolution than is achievable from X-ray films. The general scheme of a patient in the machine is shown in Fig. 11. One such slice of information taken from a sagittal scan through the eye is shown in Fig. 12.

Projected Slides

Modify the presentation right up to the moment of the presentation. Second, the presenter can build slides (as shown in Figure 4-2) to allow the presenter to work in a number of details that would intimidate the audience if shown all at once. Moreover, this building replaces the awkward practice of the presenter sliding a sheet of paper down an overhead as the presenter goes through the different points. This practice is awkward because so often the paper falls off if the speaker moves away from the projector (by the way, a better practice with overhead transparencies is to use self-stick sheets that do not slide off). A third advantage of a computer projection is that the presenter can easily incorporate a film into the presentation. These films can arise from computer simulations or from movies captured on digital cameras.

Medical Overview

Given the high medical acuity of the patient population, the critical care environment is dominated by advanced technological monitoring and intrusive, often intimidating life support equipment as the care approaches technological brinksmanship (Ferrell and Coyle 2008). A high level of traffic is common, with hosts of urgently busy interdisciplinary staff members tending to various aspects of patient care. In addition to these practitioners is the continual presence of patients' family members, friends, and other visitors, as well as the frequent bustle of transport team and support staff. Given the nature of pediatric settings, children's toys, clowns, pets, photographs, and artwork make for a startling juxta


After the mechanical tests, the specimens were stained with eosin in order to distinguish the PDL from other tissues. Photographs of side views of each specimen were taken using a stereoscopic microscope, and the thickness and cross-sectional areas of the PDL were calculated from the photographs. The mean ( S.D.) thickness and cross-sectional area of the PDLs were 0.19 0.05 mm and 0.41 0.06 mm2, respectively.


Stimuli were based on 30 monosyllabic concrete nouns. These are listed in Table 1, along with the number of children who heard each mispronunciation. These words were a subset of nouns included on the Oxford Communicative Development Inventory (OCDI Hamilton et al., 2000). Visual stimuli were computer images created from photographs, with one image depicting each word.

The Early Years

Later, flowers became an important aspect of her iconography. When O'Keeffe was 15, the family moved to Williamsburg, Virginia, and she attended the Chatham Episcopal Institute, whose principal, Elizabeth Willis, was also an art teacher. It was Willis who encouraged O'Keeffe to apply to the Art Institute of Chicago, where in 1905-1906 she studied anatomy with John Vanderpoel. Afterward, she attended the Art Students League from 1907 to 1908, winning a prize in William Merritt Chase's still life class. During this period she began going to the 291 Gallery owned by Alfred Stieglitz (1864-1946) and saw shows by Rodin and Matisse. To help her family with its financial difficulties, O'Keeffe worked as a commercial artist until 1910 when she began a career teaching art in high schools and colleges in Texas and Virginia. During her time as an art teacher, she continued her own education, studying at the University of Virginia with Alon Bement and then from 1914 to 1916 at Columbia Teachers...

Champion Flash Photography

Champion Flash Photography

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