The ankle is a hinge joint between the lower end of the tibia and the talus.
Although symptoms in the ankle and foot usually have a local cause, they can also be secondary to systemic disorders. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, and deformities.
The patient's only complaint may be uneven shoe wear. Patients with flatfoot wear down their soles on the medial side extending to the tip of the shoe. The outer portion of the heel is also worn out early. Scuff marks are usually present on the medial sides of the heels. Excessive wear under the toes may indicate an equinus foot type or a tight Achilles tendon. Asymmetric shoe wear may result from a difference in limb length. Isolated areas of wear under the ball of the foot may result from a plantar-flexed metatarsal and indicate areas of potential ulceration in a patient with diabetes and neuropathy.
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Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...