Aronson AE: Clinical Voice Disorders: An Interdisciplinary Approach. New York, Thieme-Stratton, 1980.
Benjamin B, Bingham B, Hawke M, et al: A Color Atlas of Otorhinolaryngology. Philadelphia, JB Lippincott, 1995.
Bingham BJG, Hawke M, Kwok P, et al: Atlas of Clinical Otolaryngology. St. Louis, Mosby-Year Book, 1992.
Cancer Facts & Figures. Atlanta, American Cancer Society, 2007.
Centers for Disease Control: Subpopulation estimates from the HIV incidence surveillance system—United States, 2006. MMWR 57(36):985, 2008.
DeBoever EH, Loesche W: Assessing the contribution of anaerobic microflora of the tongue to oral mal-odor. J Am Dent Assoc 126:1384, 1995.
DevCan: Probability of developing or dying of cancer software, version 5.1. Statistical Research and Applications Branch, National Cancer Institute, 2003. Available at: http://srab.cancer.gov/devcan; accessed June 6, 2008.
Eisen D, Lynch DP: The Mouth: Diagnosis and Treatment. St. Louis, Mosby, 1998.
Gupta PC, Warnakulasuriya S: Global epidemiology of areca nut usage. Addict Biol 7:77, 2002.
Hall HI, Ruiguang S, Rhodes P, et al: Estimation of HIV incidence in the United States. JAMA 300:520, 2008.
Jemel A, Tiwari R, Murray T, et al: Cancer Statistics, 2004. CA Cancer J Clin 54:8, 2004.
Kirby AJ, Muüoz A, Detels R, et al: Thrush and fever as measures of immunocompetence in HIV-1-infected men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 7:1242, 1994.
McCarthy GM: Host factors associated with HIV-related oral candidiasis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 73:181, 1992.
McIsaac WJ, Kellner JD, Aufricht P, et al: Empirical validation of guidelines for the management of pharyngitis in children and adults. JAMA 291:1587, 2004.
Moore PS, Chang Y: Detection of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with and without HIV infection. N Engl J Med 332:1181, 1995.
Nielsen H, Bentsen KD, Hojtved L, et al: Oral candidiasis and immune status of HIV-infected patients. Pathol Med 23:140, 1994.
Neuner JM, McCarthy EP, Davis RB, et al: Diagnosis and management of adults with pharyngitis: A cost-effective analysis. Ann Intern Med 139:113, 2004.
Pinkham JR, Casamassimo PS, Fields HW Jr, et al (eds): Pediatric Dentistry: Infancy Through Adolescence, 3rd ed. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 1999.
Rosenberg M: Clinical assessment of bad breath: Current concepts. J Am Dent Assoc 127:475, 1996.
Scully C, Laskaris G, Pindborg J, et al: Oral manifestations of HIV infection and their management: I. More common lesions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 71:158, 1991.
Scully C, Laskaris G, Pindborg J, et al: Oral manifestations of HIV infection and their management: II. Less common lesions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 71:167, 1991.
Silverman S: Color Atlas of Oral Manifestations of AIDS, 2nd ed. St. Louis, Mosby-Year Book, 1996.
Speilman AL, Bivona P, Rifkin BR: Halitosis: A common oral problem. N Y State Dent J 62:36, 1996.
Tonzetich J: Production and origin of oral malodor: A review of mechanisms and methods of analysis. J Periodontol 48:13, 1977.
Vincent MT, Celestin N, Hussain AN: Pharyngitis. Am Fam Physician 69:1465, 2004.
Warnakulasuriya S, Trivedy C, Peters TJ: Areca nut use: An independent risk factor for oral cancer. BMJ 324:799, 2002.
Weinert M, Grimes RM, Lynch DP: Oral manifestations of HIV infection. Ann Intern Med 125:485, 1996.
Wu MT, Lee YC, Chen CJ, et al: Risk of betel chewing for oesophageal cancer in Taiwan. Br J Cancer 85:658, 2001.
Was this article helpful?
The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.