Wound Healing Scab

Figure 15-16 Close-up of a necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum lesion.

Figure 15-16 Close-up of a necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum lesion.

Wilk Scabies Ever Clear

Figure 15-17 Deep vein thrombosis, left leg.

Table 15-2 Precipitating Factors in Thromboembolism

Factor

Cause

Stasis

Arrhythmia Heart failure

Immobilization Obesity

Varicose veins Dehydration

Blood vessel injury

Trauma Fracture

Increased coagulability

Neoplasm

Oral contraceptives

Pregnancy

Polycythemia

Previous thromboembolism

Secondary to venous thrombosis, inflammation around the vein may result. Erythema, warmth, and fever then occur, and thrombophlebitis is present. In many cases, the examiner can palpate this tender, indurated vein in the groin or medial thigh. This is commonly referred to as a cord.

Deep vein thrombophlebitis is associated with symptomatic pulmonary embolism in approximately 10% of patients. If the embolus is large, main pulmonary artery obstruction may occur, which can result in death. It is estimated that an additional 45% of patients with thrombophlebitis have asymptomatic pulmonary emboli.

Several factors that are important in precipitating thromboembolism are outlined in Table 15-2.

An important and common peripheral vascular condition is Raynaud's disease or phenomenon. Classically, this condition is associated with three color changes of the distal fingers or toes: white (pallor), blue (cyanosis), and red (rubor). These color changes are related to arterio-spasm and decreased blood supply (pallor), increased peripheral extraction of oxygen (cyanosis), and return of blood supply (rubor). The patient may experience pain or numbness of the involved area as a result of the causes of pallor and cyanosis. During the hyperemic or rubor stage, the patient may complain of burning paresthesias. Between episodes, there may be no symptoms or signs of the condition.

Raynaud's disease, which is primary or idiopathic, must be differentiated from Raynaud's phenomenon, which is secondary. Table 15-3 lists some of the different characteristics of these conditions.

Gangrene is necrosis of the deep tissues resulting from a decreased blood supply. Features of the main vascular diseases causing gangrene of the lower extremities are summarized in Table 15-4.

Table 15-3 Differential Diagnosis of Raynaud's Disease and Raynaud's Phenomenon

Feature Raynaud's Disease Raynaud's Phenomenon

Table 15-3 Differential Diagnosis of Raynaud's Disease and Raynaud's Phenomenon

Feature Raynaud's Disease Raynaud's Phenomenon

Sex

Female

Female

Bilaterality

Present (often symmetric)

± (asymmetric)

Precipitated by cold

Common

Increases symptoms

Ischemic changes

Rare

Common

Gangrene

Rare

More common

Disease association*

No

Yes

*Such as scleroderma, systemic lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis, or rheumatoid arthritis.

*Such as scleroderma, systemic lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis, or rheumatoid arthritis.

Table 15-4 Differential Diagnosis of the Main Vascular Diseases Causing Gangrene

Feature Diabetes Atherosclerosis Thromboangiitis Obliterans Raynaud's Disease Arterial Embolism

Age

Any

Older than 60 years

Younger than 40 years

Younger than 40 years

Any

Sex

Either

Either

Male

Female

Either

Onset

Gradual

Gradual

Gradual

Gradual

Sudden

Pain

Moderate

Moderate

Severe

Moderate

Often severe

Distal pulses

May be absent

May be absent

May be absent

Present

Absent*

*Affected artery does not have pulsation.

Useful Vocabulary

Listed here are the specific roots that are important for understanding the terminology related to vascular disease.

Root

Pertaining to

Example

Definition

angi(o)-

blood vessel

angiography

Radiographic visualization of blood vessels

embol(o)-

wedge; stopper

embolism

Sudden blocking of a vessel by a clot

phleb(o)-

veins

phlebotomy

Incision into a vein for blood removal

thrombo-

clot

thromboembolism Obstruction of a blood vessel by a clot that has broken loose from its site of formation

varico-

twisted; swollen

varicose

Unnaturally swollen and twisted

Arthritis Joint Pain

Arthritis Joint Pain

Arthritis is a general term which is commonly associated with a number of painful conditions affecting the joints and bones. The term arthritis literally translates to joint inflammation.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment