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Figure 20-3 Anatomic terms.

The anatomy of the elbow joint is shown in Figure 20-7. The joint movements at the elbow are flexion and extension and supination and pronation. These motions are illustrated in Figure 20-8.

The anatomy of the wrist and fingers is illustrated in Figure 20-9. The joint movements at the wrist are dorsiflexion (or extension) and palmar flexion and supination and pronation. These motions are illustrated in Figure 20-10. The joint movements at the fingers are abduction and adduction and flexion. These motions are illustrated in Figure 20-11. The joint movements of the thumb are flexion and extension and opposition. These motions are illustrated in Figure 20-12.

The anatomy of the hip is illustrated in Figure 20-13. The joint movements at the hip are flexion and extension, abduction and adduction, and internal and external rotation. These motions are illustrated in Figure 20-14.

The anatomy of the knee is shown in Figure 20-15. The joint movements at the knee are flexion and hyperextension. These motions are illustrated in Figure 20-16.

The anatomy of the ankle and foot is illustrated in Figure 20-17. There are 26 bones and 55 articulations in the foot. The bones can be divided into three regions: forefoot, midfoot, and rear foot. The forefoot is represented by the 14 bones of the toes and 5 metatarsals. The big toe (hallux) has two phalanges, two joints (interphalangeal joints), and two tiny, round sesamoid bones that enable it to move up and down. The sesamoid bones are about the size of a kernel of corn. These bones are embedded in the flexor hallucis brevis tendon, one of several tendons that exert pressure from the big toe against the ground and help initiate the act of walking: the

Zero position

Figure 20-4 Range of motion.

Table 20-2 Joint Motion

Flexion

Extension

Dorsiflexion

Plantar (or palmar) flexion

Adduction Abduction Inversion Eversion

Internal rotation External rotation Pronation

Supination

*Extension that goes {In the hand or foot,

Motion

Definition

Motion away from the zero position

Return motion to the position*

Movement in the direction of the dorsal surface

Movement in the direction of the plantar (or palmar) surface

Movement toward the midline{ Movement away from the midline

Turning of the plantar surface of the foot inward

Turning of the plantar surface of the foot outward

Turning of the anterior surface of a limb inward

Turning of the anterior surface of a limb outward

Rotation so that the palmar surface of the hand is directed downward

Example

Most joints Most joints

Ankle, toes, wrist, fingers

Ankle, toes, wrist, fingers

Shoulder, hip, metacarpophalangeal, metatarsophalangeal joints

Shoulder, hip, metacarpophalangeal, metatarsophalangeal joints

Subtalar and midtarsal joints of the foot Subtalar and midtarsal joints of the foot Shoulder, hip Shoulder, hip Elbow, wrist

Rotation so that the palmar surface of Elbow, wrist the hand is directed upward beyond the zero position is called hyperextension.

the midline is an imaginary line through the middle finger or middle toe, respectively.

Acromioclavicular joint

Glenohumeral joint

Figure 20-5 Anatomy of the shoulder joint.

Figure 20-5 Anatomy of the shoulder joint.

Figure 20-6 Range of motion at the shoulder. A, Abduction and adduction. B, Flexion and extension. C, Internal and external rotation.

Capitulum

Radial tuberosity

Radius

Capitulum

Radial tuberosity

Radius

Humerus

Trochlea

Coronoid process

Ulna

Humerus

Trochlea

Coronoid process

Figure 20-7 Anatomy of the elbow joint.

Ulna

Figure 20-8 Range of motion at the elbow joint. A, Flexion and extension. B, Supination and pronation.

Figure 20-9 Anatomy of the wrist and fingers.

Figure 20-9 Anatomy of the wrist and fingers.

Metacarpal

Hamate Triquetral Pisiform Lunate

Trapezoid Trapezium

Capitate Scaphoid

Trapezoid Trapezium

Capitate Scaphoid

ßr—Distal phalanx - Middle phalanx

Proximal phalanx

Metacarpal

Hamate Triquetral Pisiform Lunate

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