Time the Cardiac Events

To interpret heart sounds accurately, the examiner must be able to time the events of the cardiac cycle. The most reliable way of identifying S1 and S2 is to time the sounds by palpating the carotid artery. While the examiner's right hand is positioning the stethoscope, the left hand is placed on the patient's carotid artery. This technique is demonstrated in Figure 14-32. The sound that precedes the carotid pulse is the S1. The S2 follows the pulse. The carotid, not

Figure 14-32 Technique for timing the heart sounds.

the radial pulse, must be used. The time delay from S2 to the radial pulse is significant, and errors in timing will result.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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