If a scrotal mass is detected, transillumination is necessary. In a darkened room, a light source is applied to the side of scrotal enlargement. Vascular structures, tumors, blood, hernias, and normal testicles appear opaque on transillumination. Transmission of the light as a red glow indicates a serous fluid-containing cavity, such as a hydrocele or a spermatocele. A hydrocele is an abnormal collection of clear fluid in the tunica vaginalis. The testicle is contained within this cystic mass, preventing actual palpation of the testis itself. By transillumination, it may be possible to view the orientation of the normal-sized testicle within the hydrocele. A spermatocele
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