The long-term outcome of cryotherapy is not yet known, for the technology is still evolving. In one analysis, the cancer recurrence rate two years after treatment, as measured by rising PSA, was 40 percent for low-risk, 55 percent for intermediate-risk, and 64 percent for high-risk cancers. In another study, the recurrence rates at seven years were reported to be 39 percent, 32 percent, and 39 percent for men with low-, intermediate-, and high-risk cancers.2 A special concern in cryotherapy is that cancer cells that lie immediately adjacent to the urethra, which is being warmed during the freezing process, may not become frozen and will thus survive.


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