Durability testing

System level testing of garments as a system is important because these system tests allow the users to see how durably the garments were fabricated, and most importantly how well they protect the wearer. It is also to see how the user is affected by wearing the suit. The experimental suits are usually tested along with commercial off-the-shelf clothing items for test result comparison. Man-in-simulant testing, aerosol testing, physiological testing, rain-court testing, and field exercises are...

Soft body armour

Soft body armour is made from manmade polymeric lightweight fibrous materials that exhibit greatly improved ballistic resistance performance. Textile armour materials include aramids (e.g., Kevlar , Twaron , Technora ), highly oriented ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (e.g., Spectra , Dyneema ), PBO (e.g. Zylon ) is p-phenylene-2-6-benzobisoxazole, polyamide (e.g. Nylon ) and more, such as a new polymeric fibre PIPD (Polypyridobis-imidazole) with high compressive strength (referred to...

Protection against steam and condensate

Concern about use of steam and hot water condensate for different processes in the oil sector and related heavy industries has brought into consideration questions regarding the level of protection flame-resistant (FR) clothing can provide against these two elements, the need for materials specifically designed to protect against them, and appropriate methods to evaluate materials intended for this application. Currently, workers who handle steam on a routine basis normally wear over-garments...

Camouflage concealment and deception

Camouflage is predominantly a military form of protection against external threats. The basic philosophy is based upon the premise that if the enemy cannot detect a target then that target is effectively protected, and casualties are avoided. The term camouflage was first introduced by the French in World War I, being derived from 'camoufler' (to disguise). It defined the science of concealment of objects and people by the imitation of their physical surroundings. Effective camouflage must...

Introduction

Scientific advancements made in various fields have undoubtedly increased the quality and value of human life. It should however be recognized that the technological developments have also exposed us to greater risks and danger of being affected by unknown physical, chemical and biological attacks. One such currently relevant danger is from bioterrorism and weapons of mass destruction. In addition, we continue to be exposed to hazards from fire, chemicals, radiation and biological organisms...

General protection requirements and applications

Doctor Jeffrey Stull of International Protection Inc., USA is well known for his detailed theses and publications on protective clothing. Chapter 12 concentrates on protection from industrial chemicals, with a comprehensive exposition on threats, requirements, and performance of chemical protective clothing. Standards for selection, design, and evaluation of materials and clothing are detailed. There are linkages with Chapter 2 by Haase, Chapter 4 by Shaw, and Chapter 20 by Truong and Wilusz....

Materials and design

The starting point for Part I is a complete overview of personal protection by Dr Yiqi Yang, Dr Zhou and Dr Reddy from the University of Nebraska, Lincoln, USA. This includes all the hazards, the types of personal protection available, and includes the design, finishing, manufacture, and testing of materials and protective clothing. This chapter should be read as an introduction to this part of the book. The second chapter covers the important topic of international legislative and regulative...

Textiles for UV protection

A K SARKAR, Colorado State University, USA The past decade has witnessed an alarming increase in the incidence of skin cancer worldwide. A primary reason for the increased incidence of skin cancers is attributed to stratospheric ozone depletion. Because ozone is a very effective UV-absorber each one percent decrease in ozone concentration is predicted to increase the rate of skin cancer by two percent to five percent. It is estimated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency that...

Future Trends Of Cb Protective Textile

R A Scott, rascotex, uk Parti Materials and design 1 Overview of protective clothing 3 W Zhou, N Reddy and Y Yang, University of Nebraska -Lincoln, USA 1.4 Materials and technologies 15 1.5 Future of personal protection 22 2 Standards for protective textiles 31 2.3 International standards 42 2.6 Sources of further information and advice 55 3 Fashion and function - factors affecting the design and use of protective clothing 31 S Black, VKAPSALI, JBOUGOURD andFGEESIN, London College of Fashion,...

Textiles for respiratory protection

I KRUCINSKA, Technical University of Lodz, Poland Since prehistoric times, air pollution from dust has been an essential threat to human health. The presence of dust in the air is mainly the result of naturally occurring processes of which soil erosion is a good example. Together with the development of civilisation, the dust content in air can be increasingly attributed to human activity. A hypothesis can be put forward that as early as prehistoric times people protected themselves against...

Market potential of protective textiles

The Techtextil Messe, Frankfurt, Germany, supported by David Rigby Associates, UK (www.davidrigbyassociates.com) defines 12 main end-use markets for technical textiles. These are listed in Table 2.1. These terms and definitions are not universally used and they are not without their problems. However, the Techtextil typology provides the most comprehensive attempt to classify the structure of end-use markets for technical textiles (Chang, 2002). The class 'Protech' presents protection textiles...

Energy metabolism heat production and physical work

Assessment of the protection requirements in a cold environment requires information about the energy metabolism of the individual. Metabolic rate is related to the intensity of physical work and can be easily determined from measurements of oxygen consumption. Tables are readily available that allows its estimation during different types of activity (ISO-8996, 2004). With few exceptions the values for metabolic rate also indicate the level of metabolic heat production. In most types of...

Effects of laundering on UV protection

Sliney et al.44 reported the first study on the effects of laundering. In that study various fabrics were laundered ten times at 60 0C. Post-laundering, a majority of the fabrics showed a decrease in UVR transmission with thicker fabrics exhibiting a higher decrease. The researchers surmised that the process of laundering led to compaction due to shrinkage presumably decreasing porosity and hence resulting in an improvement in UV protection. Stanford et al.52 subjected five jersey-knit cotton...