Standardisation international ISO

International standardisation of PPE is mainly carried out by ISO (International Standardisation Organisation, Geneva), an affiliation of standardisation organisations from over 90 countries worldwide. Only the principal national standardisation organisation in each country can be a member, i.e., Germany is Table 2.7 International Standardisation Organisation ISO, Technical Committees in the field of PPE, TC Technical Committee, SC Subcommittee, WG working group Table 2.7 International...

Colour change mechanisms sensors we can see

The concept of producing textiles that readily vary in colour has long been anathema to the textile colourist, for whom achieving permanency of colour is a primary goal. During this search, particular colorants have shown sensitivities to light, pH, temperature, polarity of solvents, and many others.21 Indicator colorants that change colour in various conditions have already been used for a long time in chemistry. Thermochromic dyes have increasingly been the subject of investigation over the...

Camouflage concealment and deception

Camouflage is predominantly a military form of protection against external threats. The basic philosophy is based upon the premise that if the enemy cannot detect a target then that target is effectively protected, and casualties are avoided. The term camouflage was first introduced by the French in World War I, being derived from 'camoufler' (to disguise). It defined the science of concealment of objects and people by the imitation of their physical surroundings. Effective camouflage must...

Electrical protection

Protection from electromagnetic sources is required because people who work close to power lines and electrical equipment have the possibility of being exposed to electric shocks and acute flammability hazards. Generally, rubber gloves, dielectric hard hats and boots, sleeve protectors, conductive Faraday-cage garments, rubber blankets and non-conductive sticks are used for electromagnetic protection (Adanur, 1995). Conductive protective clothing with flame resistance, known as 'Live line'...

Materials and design

The starting point for Part I is a complete overview of personal protection by Dr Yiqi Yang, Dr Zhou and Dr Reddy from the University of Nebraska, Lincoln, USA. This includes all the hazards, the types of personal protection available, and includes the design, finishing, manufacture, and testing of materials and protective clothing. This chapter should be read as an introduction to this part of the book. The second chapter covers the important topic of international legislative and regulative...

Flash fire protection

As indicated above, the most significant hazard requiring protective clothing in the oil and gas sectors has been the potential for flash fires. Thus, in these sectors, protection from flame engulfment is more important than protection from purely radiant exposure. To provide protection from flash fires, a garment system, and thus any material comprising the system, must have the ability to resist ignition and self-extinguish when ignition source is removed limit heat transmission during a...

Textiles for UV protection

A K SARKAR, Colorado State University, USA The past decade has witnessed an alarming increase in the incidence of skin cancer worldwide. A primary reason for the increased incidence of skin cancers is attributed to stratospheric ozone depletion. Because ozone is a very effective UV-absorber each one percent decrease in ozone concentration is predicted to increase the rate of skin cancer by two percent to five percent. It is estimated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency that...

Future Trends Of Cb Protective Textile

R A Scott, rascotex, uk Parti Materials and design 1 Overview of protective clothing 3 W Zhou, N Reddy and Y Yang, University of Nebraska -Lincoln, USA 1.4 Materials and technologies 15 1.5 Future of personal protection 22 2 Standards for protective textiles 31 2.3 International standards 42 2.6 Sources of further information and advice 55 3 Fashion and function - factors affecting the design and use of protective clothing 31 S Black, VKAPSALI, JBOUGOURD andFGEESIN, London College of Fashion,...

Market potential of protective textiles

The Techtextil Messe, Frankfurt, Germany, supported by David Rigby Associates, UK (www.davidrigbyassociates.com) defines 12 main end-use markets for technical textiles. These are listed in Table 2.1. These terms and definitions are not universally used and they are not without their problems. However, the Techtextil typology provides the most comprehensive attempt to classify the structure of end-use markets for technical textiles (Chang, 2002). The class 'Protech' presents protection textiles...

Energy metabolism heat production and physical work

Assessment of the protection requirements in a cold environment requires information about the energy metabolism of the individual. Metabolic rate is related to the intensity of physical work and can be easily determined from measurements of oxygen consumption. Tables are readily available that allows its estimation during different types of activity (ISO-8996, 2004). With few exceptions the values for metabolic rate also indicate the level of metabolic heat production. In most types of...

Effects of laundering on UV protection

Sliney et al.44 reported the first study on the effects of laundering. In that study various fabrics were laundered ten times at 60 0C. Post-laundering, a majority of the fabrics showed a decrease in UVR transmission with thicker fabrics exhibiting a higher decrease. The researchers surmised that the process of laundering led to compaction due to shrinkage presumably decreasing porosity and hence resulting in an improvement in UV protection. Stanford et al.52 subjected five jersey-knit cotton...