Reduced visibility protection

Reduced visibility contributes to fatal pedestrian accidents. It is reported that night-time vehicles hit and kill more than 4000 pedestrians and injure more than 30,000 pedestrians annually in the United States (Adanur, 1995). High-visibility materials (HVM) are believed to be capable of assisting in avoiding worker and pedestrian deaths or serious injuries. HVMs are used by pedestrians, highway workers, cyclists, joggers, hikers, policemen, firemen and other professionals. Clothing is made...

Electrical protection

Protection from electromagnetic sources is required because people who work close to power lines and electrical equipment have the possibility of being exposed to electric shocks and acute flammability hazards. Generally, rubber gloves, dielectric hard hats and boots, sleeve protectors, conductive Faraday-cage garments, rubber blankets and non-conductive sticks are used for electromagnetic protection (Adanur, 1995). Conductive protective clothing with flame resistance, known as 'Live line'...

Radiation protection

Special clothing to prevent exposure to radiation is needed for people working in radioactive environments. Alpha-, beta- and gamma-radiation are the major modes of nuclear radiation. Irradiation injuries by alpha- and some betaradiation can be prevented by keeping the radioactive dirt off the skin and out of the eyes, nose and mouth. Goggles, respiratory masks, gloves and lightweight protective clothing may be adequate for protection from some alpha- and betaradiation which have weak...

Heat and cold protection

Basic metabolisms occurring inside our body generate heat that can be life saving or fatal depending on the atmosphere and circumstances that we are in. Normally, human bodies are comfortable to heat in a very narrow temperature range of 28-30 0C (82-86 0F) (Fourt and Hollier, 1970). In summer, we need the heat from our metabolic activity to be transferred outside as soon as possible, while in winter, especially in extremely cold conditions, we must find ways to prevent the loss of heat from...

Introduction

Scientific advancements made in various fields have undoubtedly increased the quality and value of human life. It should however be recognized that the technological developments have also exposed us to greater risks and danger of being affected by unknown physical, chemical and biological attacks. One such currently relevant danger is from bioterrorism and weapons of mass destruction. In addition, we continue to be exposed to hazards from fire, chemicals, radiation and biological organisms...

General protection requirements and applications

Doctor Jeffrey Stull of International Protection Inc., USA is well known for his detailed theses and publications on protective clothing. Chapter 12 concentrates on protection from industrial chemicals, with a comprehensive exposition on threats, requirements, and performance of chemical protective clothing. Standards for selection, design, and evaluation of materials and clothing are detailed. There are linkages with Chapter 2 by Haase, Chapter 4 by Shaw, and Chapter 20 by Truong and Wilusz....

Materials and design

The starting point for Part I is a complete overview of personal protection by Dr Yiqi Yang, Dr Zhou and Dr Reddy from the University of Nebraska, Lincoln, USA. This includes all the hazards, the types of personal protection available, and includes the design, finishing, manufacture, and testing of materials and protective clothing. This chapter should be read as an introduction to this part of the book. The second chapter covers the important topic of international legislative and regulative...

The protective textiles market

The increasing emphasis on human protection, and the continued introduction of health, safety and environmental legislation means that the technical textile market continues to be buoyant and thrive. The world market for technical textiles in 2005 was about 20 million tons per year. Of this about 280,000 tons was consumed by Protech or technical protective materials, with a value of about 3.3 billion ( 1.8 billion). This market was increasing by between 3.3 and 4.0 per annum, so Protech could...

The present day

The late 20th century saw an unprecedented increase in emphasis on protection of the human from occupational and recreational hazards. Increasingly complex legislation and regulation in the workplace was the result of the philosophy that it was no longer acceptable for humans to incur injury or death in advanced societies. The range of hazards and the means of combating them continue to grow and become ever more complex. A consequence of this is the development and exploitation of new textile...

Flash fire protection

As indicated above, the most significant hazard requiring protective clothing in the oil and gas sectors has been the potential for flash fires. Thus, in these sectors, protection from flame engulfment is more important than protection from purely radiant exposure. To provide protection from flash fires, a garment system, and thus any material comprising the system, must have the ability to resist ignition and self-extinguish when ignition source is removed limit heat transmission during a...

Textiles for UV protection

A K SARKAR, Colorado State University, USA The past decade has witnessed an alarming increase in the incidence of skin cancer worldwide. A primary reason for the increased incidence of skin cancers is attributed to stratospheric ozone depletion. Because ozone is a very effective UV-absorber each one percent decrease in ozone concentration is predicted to increase the rate of skin cancer by two percent to five percent. It is estimated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency that...

Future Trends Of Cb Protective Textile

R A Scott, rascotex, uk Parti Materials and design 1 Overview of protective clothing 3 W Zhou, N Reddy and Y Yang, University of Nebraska -Lincoln, USA 1.4 Materials and technologies 15 1.5 Future of personal protection 22 2 Standards for protective textiles 31 2.3 International standards 42 2.6 Sources of further information and advice 55 3 Fashion and function - factors affecting the design and use of protective clothing 31 S Black, VKAPSALI, JBOUGOURD andFGEESIN, London College of Fashion,...

Textiles for respiratory protection

I KRUCINSKA, Technical University of Lodz, Poland Since prehistoric times, air pollution from dust has been an essential threat to human health. The presence of dust in the air is mainly the result of naturally occurring processes of which soil erosion is a good example. Together with the development of civilisation, the dust content in air can be increasingly attributed to human activity. A hypothesis can be put forward that as early as prehistoric times people protected themselves against...

Market potential of protective textiles

The Techtextil Messe, Frankfurt, Germany, supported by David Rigby Associates, UK (www.davidrigbyassociates.com) defines 12 main end-use markets for technical textiles. These are listed in Table 2.1. These terms and definitions are not universally used and they are not without their problems. However, the Techtextil typology provides the most comprehensive attempt to classify the structure of end-use markets for technical textiles (Chang, 2002). The class 'Protech' presents protection textiles...

Energy metabolism heat production and physical work

Assessment of the protection requirements in a cold environment requires information about the energy metabolism of the individual. Metabolic rate is related to the intensity of physical work and can be easily determined from measurements of oxygen consumption. Tables are readily available that allows its estimation during different types of activity (ISO-8996, 2004). With few exceptions the values for metabolic rate also indicate the level of metabolic heat production. In most types of...

Effects of laundering on UV protection

Sliney et al.44 reported the first study on the effects of laundering. In that study various fabrics were laundered ten times at 60 0C. Post-laundering, a majority of the fabrics showed a decrease in UVR transmission with thicker fabrics exhibiting a higher decrease. The researchers surmised that the process of laundering led to compaction due to shrinkage presumably decreasing porosity and hence resulting in an improvement in UV protection. Stanford et al.52 subjected five jersey-knit cotton...