Physical pretreatments

The ability of a textile fabric, of a particular fibre polymer type and fabric construction, to hold treatment liquor during the commonly used pad impregnation system depends in part on the fibre/filament configuration of the yarns. It is in the order for yarn types:

Spun staple > false twist textured > flat multifilament > monofilament.

This particular order of graduation also applies to the keying-in ability of deposited functional reagents and products, especially polymeric and coated forms; this particular behaviour can be enhanced by raising and exposing tiny loops in multifilament fabrics, or fibre ends by a sueding treatment with fine-gauge emery paper. Air-jet texturing generates loops along filaments, and fabrics with such configured yarns will have improved keying properties to applied products compared to flat filament fabrics. They avoid the inherent stretch exhibited by false-twist textured yarn fabrics, which can cause problems.

Thermoplastic fibre fabrics can be heat calendered to reduce their interstitial pore size to optimise resistance to penetration by harmful fluids. This process can be improved with moistened fabric, and friction calendering sometimes enhances the effect particularly on nylon, whilst minimising the loss of tensile strength.

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