Magnitude of Anxiety Disorders

Panic Away

Panic Away End Anxiety and Panic Attacks

Get Instant Access

Table 3 presents the rates of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents in community surveys which applied either DSM-III-R or DSM-IV criteria (Anderson et al., 1987; Bird et al., 1988; Bowen et al., 1990; Canals et al., 1995, 1997; Cohen et al., 1993; Costello et al., 1996, 1988a, b; Feehan et al., 1993; Fergusson et al., 1993a; Kashani et al., 1987a; Kessler et al., 1994; Lewinsohn et al., 1993; Magee et al., 1996; McGee et al., 1990; Newman et al., 1996; Pine et al., 1998; Reinherz et al., 1993a; Simonoff et al., 1997; Velez et al., 1989; Verhulst et al., 1985; Whitaker et al., 1990; Wittchen et al 1994; 1998). Similar to community studies of adults, anxiety disorders are the most common disorder in the general population. However, there is a wide range in prevalence rates according to the specific anxiety subtypes as well as according to the study methodology. In general, approximately 20% of youth suffer from one of the anxiety disorders, and half as many have impairment in functioning resulting from anxiety or phobias (Shaffer et al 1996). The most common anxiety disorder is specific phobia (8%); followed by social phobia (5%), GAD (4%), and about 1-2% for all of the other anxiety disorders. Panic disorders were extremely rare; most of the community studies identified no cases of panic disorders among youth.

The findings vary dramatically by the source of information and age of the index child. However, no consistent trends emerge in terms of the direction of the differences between informants. For example, Fergusson et al (1993b) found that parents generally reported slightly higher rates of GAD and phobic states than did their 15 year old offspring, whereas Kashani et al. (1987a) found that across all ages from 8-17, the child report yielded substantially greater rates of disorder than the parental report. In the Methods for the Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders study (Schaffer et al., 1996), informant differences for symptoms alone or those with impairment did not exhibit large differences. There was a weak trend for youth to report higher rates of anxiety than parents. With respect to prevalence period, there were no large differences between lifetime and 12- or o>

TABLE 3. Rates of Anxiety Disorders in Community Samples of Children and Adolescents

Anxiety

Phobias

TABLE 3. Rates of Anxiety Disorders in Community Samples of Children and Adolescents

Anxiety

Phobias

Study

(yeatrs)

SAD

OAD

GAD

Panic Dx

Specific

Social

Agoraphobia

Total

United States

Bird et al. (1988)

4-16

4.7%

2.6%

Cohen et al. (1993)

9-18

M: 7.7%

M: 0%

M: 7.7%

M: 6.7%

Velez et al. (1989)

F: 9.5%

F: 18.0%

F: 0%

F: 17.8%

F: 10.1%

Pine et al. (1998)

11-20

M: 3.7%

M: 5.8%

M: 0%

M: 3.7%

M; 6.8%

F: 3.7

F: 10.3%

F: 0%

F: 8.2%

F: 12.6%

17-26

M: 2.2%

M: 0.3%

M: 12.0%'

M: 1.7%'

F: 7.8%

F: 1.7%

F: 32.1%

F: 9.5%

Costello et al. (1988)

7-11

4.1%

4.6%

0%

9.2%

1.0%

1.2%

15.4%

Costello et al. (1996)

9,11,13

3.5%

1.4%

1.7%

0%

0.3%

0.6%

0%

5.7%'

Kashani et al. (1987a)

14-16

4.1%

9.1%

8.7%

Kashani et al. (1989)

8,12,17

25.7,15.7,21.4%

Kessler (1994)

15-24

0.8% (30D)

1.9% (30D)

6.2% (30D)

7.3% (30D)

3.0% GOD)

Eaton et al. (1994)

1.4% (12M)

10.8%' (LT)

14.9%' (LT)

7.7% (LT)

Magee et al. (1996)

2.0% (LT)

Wittchen et al. (1994)

Lewinsohn et al. (1993)

14-18

0.2% (PT)

0.5% (PT)

0.4% (PT)

1.4%. (PT)

0.9%

0.4% (PT)

3.2%

15-19

0.1% (PT)

0.1% (PT)

0.3% (PT)

0.5% (PT)

0.2% (PT)

0.1% (PT)

1.3% (PT)

4.3% (LT)

1.2% (LT)

1.2% (LT)

2.1% (LT)

1.5% (LT)

0.6% (LT)

9.2% (LT)

Shaffer et al. (1996)

6.5% (I)

11.4% (I)

21.6% (1)

15.1% (1)

6.5% (I)

6.5% (I)

39.5% (I)

5.8% (nol)

7.7% (nol)

3.3% (nol)

7.6% (nol)

4.8% (nol)

4.8% (nol)

39.5% (I)

Simonoff et al. (1997)

8-16

1.5% (I)

4.4% (I)

4.4% (1)

2.5% (I)

1.1% (I)

7.2% (nol)

10.8% (nol)

21.2% (nol)

8.4% (nol)

2.7% (nol)

Whitaker et al. (1990)

13-18

3.7%

0.6%

International

Anderson et al. (1987)

11

3.5%

2.9%

McGee et al. (1990)

15

2.0%

5.9%

Feehan et al. (1994)

18

Newman et al. (1996)

21

Bowen et al. (1990)

12-16

3.6%

2.4%

Offord et al. (1989)

14-17

Canals et al. (1995);

10-11

(1997)

18

Fergusson et al. (1993a)

15

0.5%

2.1%

Verhulst et al. (1997)

13-18

1.8%

3.1%

Wittchen et al. (1998)

14-24

"I = with impairment; nol = without impairment. 'Prevalence definitions: PT = point, 30D = 30 days, 1M = 1

1.2% (12M) 1.8% (12M) 2.6% (12M) 1.6% (12M) 9.3% (12M)

1 month, 6M = 6 months, 12M = 12 months, LT = lifetime.

6-month prevalence rates for most of the anxiety disorders (Lewinsohn et al., 1993; Reinherz et al., 1993a; Wittchen et al., 1998).

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Kicking Fear And Anxiety To The Curb

Kicking Fear And Anxiety To The Curb

Kicking Fear And Anxiety To The Curb Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life And Success. Learn About Calming Down And Gain Power By Learning Ways To Become Peaceful And Create Amazing Results.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment