Newer Paradigms and Suggestions for Further Reading and Research

Much of the published work in psychoanalysis and the arts relies on Freudian psychoanalysis, and among Freud's papers there are several others that deserve special mention in this context. Family Romances (Freud 1909 offers richly nuanced suggestions with regard to artists' desires for idealization and devaluation in their imagery it is a paper whose argument complicates our notions of symbolism by showing how the present and past mutually revise one another in terms of the imagery we...

References

Nouvelle Revue de Psychanalyse 9 195-208, 1974 Anzicu D The sound image of the self. Translated by Melodic M. Int Rev Psychoanal 6 23-36, 1976 Balkdnyi C Psychoanalysis of a stammering girl. Int Psy- choanal 42 97-109, 1961 Baudry F An essay on method in applied psychoanalysis. Psychoanal Q S3 551-581,1984 Bunker HA Jr The voice as (female) phallus. Psychoanal Q 3 391-429, 1934 Gumming N The Sonic Self Musical Subjectivity and Signification. Bloonungton, Indiana University...

Internalization and Mourning

A variety of processes are assumed to participate in the development of psychic structure. A number of overlapping terms incorporation, introjection, identification, and imitation refer to the process by which the growing individual internalizes qualities of the persons (objects important to him or her ISchafer 1968). These terms illustrate some of the principal difficulties that confront psychoanalytic formulation the multiple influences, especially developmental ones, on psychological...

Why Does the Debate Matter

Throughout this chapter wrc have seen that what appear to be even the simplest formulations about the meaning or the efficacy of particular psychoanalytic interventions invite opposing assertions. Attempts to engage the larger questions such as the relative effects of interpretation and relationship become shrouded in the log of theoretical bias and eventually sound very much like Glover's special pleading. Even the apparent middle road of emphasizing the development of new mental capabilities...

Construction Reconstruction and CoConstruction

Although childhood experiences and childhood conflicts are at the heart of almost all theories of pathogenesis, the central importance of memories of childhood as pathogens in the adult is clearly a different matter. Do memories need to be recovered to restore personal continuity and resolve neurotic suffering Freud's evolving views about the memories emerging in treatment their elusiveness, unreliability, and distortions their relationship to the current transference and their inevitable...

Implications for Transference

Transference is now conceptualized within the broader notion of an analytic field. What are the further implications for the concept and status of transference and interpretation of transference For Ogden 200l, 2004a, 2004b), transference in the form of transference-counter-transference continues to hold a key position in clinical thinking. Ogden views transference as a form of thinking and of experiencing in which past modes of thinking and feeling are particularly alive in the present moment...

Signifier and Signified

Lacan borrowed from Ferdinand de Saussure the concepts of signifier and signified. Signifier means the sound-image of a word, and signified denotes the meaning we associate with that word. Saussure's important discovery was that the sound of a word and the meaning connected to it were of an arbitrary nature. In contrast to images, words are there to differentiate between the signs the combination of sigmfier signified. Lacan reversed Saussure's proposed connection between the signifier and the...

Greenberg and Mitchell

Seeing these developments variously thought about as intersubjective, interpersonal, and object relational-happening across a variety of psychoanalytic theories, Jay Greenberg and Stephen Mitchell (1983) pulled together the ideas of many theorists to argue that there were two main trends in psychoanalytic theorizing. In one, following Freud, the building blocks of the unconscious mind are endogenously arising wishes derived from sexual and aggressive drives. In the other, the building blocks of...

Analytic Third

The third is a concept that has become popular across a variety of schools of psychoanalysis. It has been developed and extended by some of the leading theorists of psychoanalysis, including Ogden and Benjamin (see Mitchell and Aron 1999), Green, and a variety of Lacan-influenced writers, but it is often defined ambiguously and inconsistently across schools sce Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Volume 73, Issue 1, 2004, for a survey of die topic of the third). Thomas Ogden's the analytic third...

WRD Fairbairn

Ronald Fairbairn was a member of the group of independent psychoanalysts in the British Psychoanalytic Society who worked in relative isolation in Edinburgh, Scotland. In a productive period during the 1940s and 1950s, Fairbairn inaugurated a series of revisions to psychoanalytic theory that gave rise to a truly object relational view of the personality. Fairbairn wras the first psychoanalyst to delineate the object-related nature of the self, asserting that primary, nonpathological...

Mitch Ritter Psychoanalysis

The phenomenon of transference is one in which the aura of its discovery infuses the very experience of what transference is and feels like for the practicing psychoanalyst. In his earliest discussions of transference, Freud attempted to convey not only what transference is but also something of the experience of surprise, of the mystery and awesome power of its discovery and rediscovery in every clinical hour, as a flash of insight that may alter the landscape of understanding of the patient's...

Role of Anxiety

Fust as Freud had revised his theory of instincts in 1920 and his model of the mind in 1923, so too he revised his theory of the genesis of anxiety and its pivotal role in psychic conflict in his 1926 monograph The Problem of Anxiety Freud 1926). Freud's first theory explaining the genesis of anxiety was that anxiety was the product of the transformation of dammed up sexual energy, in other words, a product of sexual frustration. Although he never fully abandoned this view, in 1926 he added a...

Dissociation

Sullivan 11953 believed that our self-states arise from the internalization of recurring patterns of interactions in our early significant relationships with others and are shaped by our distinctive patterns of avoiding or minimizing threats of anxiety activated by these relationships (Howell 2006 . For Sullivan, anxiety in a child comes about through an cmpathic linkage with the parent. Thus, anxiety is viewed as contagious. Over time, the child discovers that some behaviors are met with...

The Kleinian School and Projective Identification

Melanie Klein (19461 introduced the term projective identification to describe how the attribution (by projection of aspects of the self to the internal image of an object (in the projecting subnet's inner world) changes the inner experience of that object. The internal object thereby becomes identified with what has been projected into it, and the patient's behavior toward the actual external object is governed by his or her inner experience of that object. In more disturbed patients, such as...

Psychosis

No other clinical structure explains the significance of language and the independence of the signifier over the signified as well as the structure of psychosis. Psychosis represents the laboratory for the splitting of the mind, something Freud had already discovered in his treatise on dreams. Modeling his theory of psychosis on Freud's analysis of the Schreiber case and on his own clinical studies of psychosis at St. Anne's Hospital, Lacan showed how the psychotic subject forecloses the...

Phantasy See Fantasy Phantasy

Phobia A symptom involving the avoidance of an object or situation that stimulates anxiety. A phobia involves the displacement of a feeling away from its actual object onto one that bears some symbolic connection to it, along with a projection of a forbidden urge onto the phobic object. Pleasure principle Unpleasure principle The basic regulatory aim of all mental activity, according to Freud, in which the individual seeks to maximize pleasure and to avoid unpleasure. Frustration in achiev ing...

Karl Abraham

Karl Abraham was the first psychoanalyst to place greater importance on the role of the obiect in libidinal development and in the life of unconscious fantasy. He divided iniant development into pre-ambivalent, ambivalent, and post-ambivalent phases, and this conceptualization became the forerunner oi Melanie Klein's and Ronald Fairbaim's schizoid and depressive levels of early psycho logical organization. Inherent in Abraham's conception of different forms of ambivalence toward objects was the...

Post Freudian Concepts of Termination

What Freud failed to do other psychoanalysts attempted to do, but because they too shied away from facing the problem, their contribution remained limited. I quote once more from my 1997 paper The first psychoanalysts to address difficulties in termination were Ferenczi and Rank (1924). In keeping with Freud's (1914 idea that during psychoanalysis the infantile neurosis is transformed into a transference neurosis, they advocated that the analyst should set the termination date the moment this...

The Paranoid Schizoid Position and Projective Identification

The Controversial Discussions were over and Klein was safely reestablished in the British Society when the next phase in her theoretical development began with her 1946 paper Notes on Some Schizoid Mechanisms (Klein 1946*, which wras published later in Developments in Psychoanalysis. In this she introduced the paranoid-schizoid position and her new concept of projective identification. By this time a new generation was grouped around her, and it was they who became known as the Kleinians....

Films and Dreams

A special place in the dialogue between psychoanalysis and cinema concerns dreams. As their interpretation constitutes, according to Freud, the royal road to the unconscious, perhaps also the exploration of films may-lead us in the same direction. The association between movies and dreams is powerfully established in our culture. I still remember that as children growing up in the 1950s, when reporting our dreams to one another, my friends and I always mentioned whether the dreams were in color...

Wilfred Bion

Wilfred Bion was born in 1897 to an English family living in British India. He had a younger sister. At the age of 8, he was sent to England as a boarder, first to a boarding preparatory school and then to a public (private) school. By the time he left school, World War 1(1914-1918) was under way, and he joined the army as a young officer of 19 in 1916. He served as a tank and troop commander in the thick of battles, with their appalling carnage, and was decorated with both the British DSO...

Sexual Subjectivity

Originally, sex, like any phenomenon indeed, like any patient), was an object to he studied and known by a scientist's putatively disinterested mind. Claims to untrammeled objectivity hold no more. Implicated as we are in the subject matter we study, influenced by the people we treat, our definitions, explications, and liuer- pretauons of sexuality are informed by our sexual experiences, whether cognitive, affective, personal, familial, or cultural. Our task therefore shifts If we want to know...

Psychoanalysis Conclusion

As we have seen, the relationship between psychoanalysis and cinema is a complex one. Most studies in this area, whether from psychoanalysts or film scholars, originally focused on the application of certain basic analytic concepts, borrowed from Freudian or other mctapsychologies, to the interpretation of the contents of individual movies and to the exploration of such themes as their narrative, characterizations, and oneiric quality. Of course, a psychoanalytic film genre as such does not...

Mom Fctish Photos

Zimmer, M.D., Editor Peter M. Bookstein, M.D., Associate Editor Edward T. Kenny, M.D., Associate Editor Andreas K. Kraebber, M.D., Associate Editor Abstinence The technical principle that the analyst must refrain from gratifying the wishes of the patient. By refraining from providing gratification, the analyst encourages these wishes to be put into words by the patient so that they can be analyzed. Acting out The expression in action outside of a psychoanalytic session of feelings...

Psychodynamic Therapy With Diagnostically Specific Samples

Nevertheless, there arc some meta-analyses that have focused on specific diagnostic groups of patients, especially depressed patients, in psychoanalytic, mostly short-term, therapies (Cuiipers et al. 2008a> Driessen et al. 2010 Leichsenring 2001). Cuiipers et al. 2008a reported that we found very few indications that several important types of psychological treatment for depression differ significantly from each other (in their efficacy . No significant difference was found for...

Role of Technique in Treatment

Studies examining specific techniques have focused on therapist interventions such as providing interpretations, addressing defenses, working with affect, and other ways of fostering insight and improving emotional and social functioning. Research has examined different types of interpretations, including defense interpretations, transference interpretations, and extratransfer-ence interpretations (e.g., parents, significant others), focusing on either the past or the present or linking the...

Films Mis Representing the Psychoanalytic Profession

In the third and last group, I have included those films that attempt to represent the psychoanalytic profession itself those movies whose main characters are psychoanalysts (e.g., Nanni Moretti's The Son's Room La Stanza del Figlio 2001 , Freud himself (John Huston's Freud The Secret Passion 1962 ), psychoanalytic patients Hugh Brody's Nineteen Nineteen 1985 , or both analyst and analysand Georg Wilhclm Pabst's Secrets of a Soul Geheimnisse einer Seele 1926 . Not surprisingly, prominent...

Retrospective FollowUp Studies

True, a chart review study is retrospective in the sense that the reviewers revisit the charts. Yet, they were indeed there as the treatments took place. In contrast, a number of follow-up studies, in the United States Er e and Goldberg 2003 Freedman et al. 1999 Friedman et sas. Among the many publications of the project, there are two extensive summaries (Remberg et al. 1972 Wallerstein 1986, 1989). Most of the 42 patients included were severely disturbed, writh repeated previous treatment...

Through Scopes Broad and Narrow

Along with changing views of the therapeutic relationship, there were concomitant changes in analysts' beliefs about who can benefit from psychoanalytic therapy. A common criticism of the classical school had been that, in keeping with Freud's early view, the more disturbed patients could not be helped by psychoanalysis. Freud had divided the functional mental disorders into three broad classes the transference neuroses, the narcissistic neuroses, and the aklual neuroses (neurasthenia, anxiety...

Pioneering Contributions

Both the concept of defense and the concept of resistance originate in the work of Freud. In his 1894 paper The Neuro-Psychoses of Defence ' Freud introduced the idea that the mind unconsciously but actively splits itself when it confronts incompatible ideas (e.g., experiences, feelings, and thoughts that are distressing to the ego (Freud 1894). The ego defends itself against the intrusion of these objectionable elements by forcing them out of consciousness. Alive in the unconscious, split-off...