Phantasy See Fantasy Phantasy

Phobia A symptom involving the avoidance of an object or situation that stimulates anxiety. A phobia involves the displacement of a feeling away from its actual object onto one that bears some symbolic connection to it, along with a projection of a forbidden urge onto the phobic object. Pleasure principle Unpleasure principle The basic regulatory aim of all mental activity, according to Freud, in which the individual seeks to maximize pleasure and to avoid unpleasure. Frustration in achiev ing...

Karl Abraham

Karl Abraham was the first psychoanalyst to place greater importance on the role of the obiect in libidinal development and in the life of unconscious fantasy. He divided iniant development into pre-ambivalent, ambivalent, and post-ambivalent phases, and this conceptualization became the forerunner oi Melanie Klein's and Ronald Fairbaim's schizoid and depressive levels of early psycho logical organization. Inherent in Abraham's conception of different forms of ambivalence toward objects was the...

Post Freudian Concepts of Termination

What Freud failed to do other psychoanalysts attempted to do, but because they too shied away from facing the problem, their contribution remained limited. I quote once more from my 1997 paper The first psychoanalysts to address difficulties in termination were Ferenczi and Rank (1924). In keeping with Freud's (1914 idea that during psychoanalysis the infantile neurosis is transformed into a transference neurosis, they advocated that the analyst should set the termination date the moment this...

The Paranoid Schizoid Position and Projective Identification

The Controversial Discussions were over and Klein was safely reestablished in the British Society when the next phase in her theoretical development began with her 1946 paper Notes on Some Schizoid Mechanisms (Klein 1946*, which wras published later in Developments in Psychoanalysis. In this she introduced the paranoid-schizoid position and her new concept of projective identification. By this time a new generation was grouped around her, and it was they who became known as the Kleinians....

Films and Dreams

A special place in the dialogue between psychoanalysis and cinema concerns dreams. As their interpretation constitutes, according to Freud, the royal road to the unconscious, perhaps also the exploration of films may-lead us in the same direction. The association between movies and dreams is powerfully established in our culture. I still remember that as children growing up in the 1950s, when reporting our dreams to one another, my friends and I always mentioned whether the dreams were in color...

Wilfred Bion

Wilfred Bion was born in 1897 to an English family living in British India. He had a younger sister. At the age of 8, he was sent to England as a boarder, first to a boarding preparatory school and then to a public (private) school. By the time he left school, World War 1(1914-1918) was under way, and he joined the army as a young officer of 19 in 1916. He served as a tank and troop commander in the thick of battles, with their appalling carnage, and was decorated with both the British DSO...

Sexual Subjectivity

Originally, sex, like any phenomenon indeed, like any patient), was an object to he studied and known by a scientist's putatively disinterested mind. Claims to untrammeled objectivity hold no more. Implicated as we are in the subject matter we study, influenced by the people we treat, our definitions, explications, and liuer- pretauons of sexuality are informed by our sexual experiences, whether cognitive, affective, personal, familial, or cultural. Our task therefore shifts If we want to know...

Psychoanalysis Conclusion

As we have seen, the relationship between psychoanalysis and cinema is a complex one. Most studies in this area, whether from psychoanalysts or film scholars, originally focused on the application of certain basic analytic concepts, borrowed from Freudian or other mctapsychologies, to the interpretation of the contents of individual movies and to the exploration of such themes as their narrative, characterizations, and oneiric quality. Of course, a psychoanalytic film genre as such does not...

Mom Fctish Photos

Zimmer, M.D., Editor Peter M. Bookstein, M.D., Associate Editor Edward T. Kenny, M.D., Associate Editor Andreas K. Kraebber, M.D., Associate Editor Abstinence The technical principle that the analyst must refrain from gratifying the wishes of the patient. By refraining from providing gratification, the analyst encourages these wishes to be put into words by the patient so that they can be analyzed. Acting out The expression in action outside of a psychoanalytic session of feelings...

Psychodynamic Therapy With Diagnostically Specific Samples

Nevertheless, there arc some meta-analyses that have focused on specific diagnostic groups of patients, especially depressed patients, in psychoanalytic, mostly short-term, therapies (Cuiipers et al. 2008a> Driessen et al. 2010 Leichsenring 2001). Cuiipers et al. 2008a reported that we found very few indications that several important types of psychological treatment for depression differ significantly from each other (in their efficacy . No significant difference was found for...

Role of Technique in Treatment

Studies examining specific techniques have focused on therapist interventions such as providing interpretations, addressing defenses, working with affect, and other ways of fostering insight and improving emotional and social functioning. Research has examined different types of interpretations, including defense interpretations, transference interpretations, and extratransfer-ence interpretations (e.g., parents, significant others), focusing on either the past or the present or linking the...

Films Mis Representing the Psychoanalytic Profession

In the third and last group, I have included those films that attempt to represent the psychoanalytic profession itself those movies whose main characters are psychoanalysts (e.g., Nanni Moretti's The Son's Room La Stanza del Figlio 2001 , Freud himself (John Huston's Freud The Secret Passion 1962 ), psychoanalytic patients Hugh Brody's Nineteen Nineteen 1985 , or both analyst and analysand Georg Wilhclm Pabst's Secrets of a Soul Geheimnisse einer Seele 1926 . Not surprisingly, prominent...

Retrospective FollowUp Studies

True, a chart review study is retrospective in the sense that the reviewers revisit the charts. Yet, they were indeed there as the treatments took place. In contrast, a number of follow-up studies, in the United States Er e and Goldberg 2003 Freedman et al. 1999 Friedman et sas. Among the many publications of the project, there are two extensive summaries (Remberg et al. 1972 Wallerstein 1986, 1989). Most of the 42 patients included were severely disturbed, writh repeated previous treatment...

Theoretical Origins

Jacques Lacan was one of the most influential psychoanalysts in France. He introduced psychoanalysis to France, a country that had been deeply suspicious of the Germanic roots of psychoanalysis. Had it not been for the particular French character of Lacan, who was a psychiatrist and a close friend to many surrealist painters and writers, as well an avid reader of literature and philosophy, psychoanalysis may have never entered into the fabric of French culture in such a profound way. Lacan was...

Through Scopes Broad and Narrow

Along with changing views of the therapeutic relationship, there were concomitant changes in analysts' beliefs about who can benefit from psychoanalytic therapy. A common criticism of the classical school had been that, in keeping with Freud's early view, the more disturbed patients could not be helped by psychoanalysis. Freud had divided the functional mental disorders into three broad classes the transference neuroses, the narcissistic neuroses, and the aklual neuroses (neurasthenia, anxiety...

Pioneering Contributions

Both the concept of defense and the concept of resistance originate in the work of Freud. In his 1894 paper The Neuro-Psychoses of Defence ' Freud introduced the idea that the mind unconsciously but actively splits itself when it confronts incompatible ideas (e.g., experiences, feelings, and thoughts that are distressing to the ego (Freud 1894). The ego defends itself against the intrusion of these objectionable elements by forcing them out of consciousness. Alive in the unconscious, split-off...