Radiation Exposure Ebooks Catalog

How To Beat Electrical Sensitivity

This ebook is the complete guide to learning about electrical sensitivity and how to prevent getting it in your life. You will learn what electrical sensitivity is, and what causes it. Once you have started learning about it you will learn how to get rid of it and protect yourself from the dangers of electrical sensitivity. You will also learn how to heal yourself. This book is the product of careful research by the scientific and medical communities into the dangers and preventative measures of electrical sensitivity. ES is one of the most under-diagnosed conditions in the world right now, and this ebook is designed to education people as to how it works and how to prevent it. Do not let it take hold of your family; take control and prevent it now! Do not let yourself get any more hurt; learn about this condition and fight it! Read more...

How To Beat Electrical Sensitivity Summary

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Author: Lloyd Burrell
Official Website: www.electricsenseinterviews101.com
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My How To Beat Electrical Sensitivity Review

Highly Recommended

The author has done a thorough research even about the obscure and minor details related to the subject area. And also facts weren’t just dumped, but presented in an interesting manner.

When compared to other e-books and paper publications I have read, I consider this to be the bible for this topic. Get this and you will never regret the decision.

Relationship of Cell Cycle and Ionizing Radiation

The cell cycle (Figure 21-2) has four phases that are distinctly sequenced and describe the life cycle of cells (1) Synthesis (S) DNA synthesis, (2) Gap (G2) a period of apparent cellular inactivity, (3) Mitosis (M) cellular division into two daughter cells, (4) Gap (G1) a period of apparent cellular inactivity. Cells vary in their sensitivity to ionizing radiation and this is dependent on their position within the cell cycle at the time of the exposure to the radiation (Figure 21-3). The most sensitive phases are G2 and M. The medium sensitivity phases include G1 and early S. The least sensitive phase is late S (Table 21-2). In a given volume of tissue, its cells are asynchronously distributed within the various phases of the cell cycle. Each cell will progress through the cycle at its own individual rate. When exposed to ionizing radiation, the surviving cells will undergo partial synchronization. This occurs as a consequence of G2 arrest which delays cells in a more radiosensitive...

Effects of Oscillating Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields B1 fields

Although the evidence regarding the teratogenic effects of MRI is confusing and contradictory, it is safer than other equivalent forms of imaging that require ionizing radiation.11 It is the imaging technique of choice in pregnant women where the alternative would involve exposure to ionizing radiation.11 Many units limit occupational exposure during pregnancy. There does not appear to be any evidence that the fields used in MRI pose an increased risk for developing cancer.

Electromagnetic spectrum

X-rays are part of the electromagnetic spectrum. This is composed of energy waves. Contained within the electromagnetic spectrum are radio waves, ultraviolet light, visible light and cosmic rays, as well as X-rays and gamma rays (Fig. 32.2). Electromagnetic spectrum Fig. 32.2 The electromagnetic spectrum Fig. 32.2 The electromagnetic spectrum When electromagnetic radiation is emitted, whether it is from the sun or an X-ray tube, the intensity will decrease as the distance from the source increases. This is known as the inverse square law. This is useful in radiation protection. The further away from the X-ray tube you can get, the lower the intensity of X-rays reaching the body and causing damage.

Environmental Radiation Exposure

As with the medical radiation exposure just described, environmental radiation exposure of the thyroid can be from external sources as well as internal ingestion of radioisotopes of iodine. The populations exposed are geographically related to discrete regional events involving either nuclear weapons or nuclear power plant accidents. The largest, best studied population exposed to acute external radiation from an environmental source includes survivors of the atomic bombs detonated at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.23 24 A cohort of more than 100,000 residents of these cities with a variable exposure dose on the basis of proximity to the sites of explosion has been identified and monitored. Relative risk of thyroid cancer clearly increased in this population on the basis of age at exposure and dose of radiation received. Younger people and, in particular, females younger than 30 years at the time of the blasts had the most increased relative risk. The dose response is particularly well...

Electromagnetic Radiation and Oxidative Stress in the Male Germ Line

Abstract The beneficial impacts of mobile-based communications on society are considerable. Health concerns over the broadcast of radio frequency electromagnetic waves, which carry the information for this medium, are now gaining momentum but are not without its controversies. Studies in the past that aim to determine whether concerns are warranted are sometimes lacking in impact because of poor understanding of radiation science. Nevertheless, the studies completed to date are important in developing the field toward the goal of confirming or disproving claims that radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) is a serious health issue. We focus on what has been achieved to date, toward determining the effects of RF-EMR on the male reproductive system and information presented which may underpin the potential mechanisms at play. We suggest that oxidative stress may have a key role in the detrimental effects observed in the human spermatozoon and that this cell type may be a...

Radiation Exposure

The association between radiation exposure and increased risk of thyroid cancer was first recognized by investigators studying the increasing clinical problem of childhood thyroid cancer in the mid-20th century.5 6 The number of cases of thyroid cancer diagnosed and treated in children or adolescents was quite low only 18 cases of childhood thyroid cancer were reported in the medical literature before 1930 (Fig. 26-1).7 Duffy and Fitzgerald recognized an increased incidence of this disease and reported 28 cases between 1932 and 1948 at Memorial Sloan Kettering in New York City.5 They evaluated this population with the stated goals of highlighting this increasingly important clinical condition, defining the disease and natural history of childhood thyroid cancer, and discovering possible etiologic factors . . . from analysis of environmental, familial, and other biologic factors. 5 In addition to analyzing the sex distribution of the patients, age at diagnosis in relation to puberty,...

Radiation Processes Direct versus Indirect Effect

Radiation can be either directly or indirectly ionizing. Directly ionizing radiation, such as protons and other charged particles, produce chemical and biologic damage by directly disrupting subcellular targets such as DNA. X-rays and gamma rays, however, are indirectly ionizing. When they are absorbed in a medium, usually rich in water content, they give up their energy to produce ultra-short-lived, fast-moving charged particles and radicals that cause chemical and biologic damage. There is strong circumstantial evidence that the primary target of this damage is DNA.8

Linear Energy Transfer

Aprocess known as linear energy transfer (LET) can be a physical modifier of radiation response. LET is the average energy transferred to the medium by the ionizing particle per unit length of track. When radiation is absorbed in a medium, ion-izations tend to occur along the tracks of individual charged particles. LET is important because it is a factor in the relative biologic effectiveness (RBE) of a particular type of radiation. RBE is used to compare the biologic effectiveness of different types of ionizing radiation. Radiation can be classified as high LET, such as protons, neutrons, and heavy charged particles, or low LET, such as x-rays and gamma rays. X-rays are an example of low LET radiation with low rBe because x-rays are more sparsely ionizing and have a lower probability of causing a double-strand break. Overall, high LET radiation has the advantages of (1) higher relative biologic effectiveness, (2) less resistance of hypoxic cells, (3) less resistance in resistant...

Disturbances in Calcium and Phosphate

The primary factor driving increases in circulating calcium is PTH, which increases bone resorption and converts vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) into 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, the active form of vitamin D3. Cholecalciferol is primarily formed in the skin from solar irradiation, and some evidence suggests that ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure of tanning beds can raise vitamin D3 (Tangpricha et al., 2004). Dietary sources are

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

In comparison to traditional echocardiography, cardiac MRI offers the advantages of superior resolution with precise morphologic characterization, enhanced tissue contrast capability, reduced exposure to ionizing radiation, and production of three-dimensional images.62 These advantages result in the ability of cardiac MRI to better detect areas of hypertrophy that are not well visualized or are missed by traditional echocardiography. Particularly in patients with atypical hypertrophy of the anterolateral free wall, cardiac MRI is a powerful adjunctive tool in the diagnosis of HCM.62

Effects of laundering on UV protection

Zhou and Crews53 did a more comprehensive study on the effect of repeated launderings on UVR transmission through fabrics. In their study, eight types of woven and knitted summer wear fabrics ranging from a 100 cotton sheeting to blends of cotton polyester to a 100 nylon were subjected to 20 launderings using detergents with and without an optical brightening agent (OBAs). Optical brightening agents are additives found in home laundry detergents to enhance the whiteness of textiles. Since OBAs function by excitation in the UV band and re-emission in the visible blue band of the electromagnetic spectrum it stood to reason that fabrics laundered with a detergent containing an OBA would likely have enhanced sun protection. As expected, all the woven and knit cotton fabrics in the study showed an increase in UPF and decrease in percent UVR transmission after repeated launderings using a detergent with OBA. The positive results were attributed partly to the high absorbent properties of...

Identification of Sperm Oxidative Stress from Clinical History

Male Infertility Causes Mnemonics

Cancer and its treatment by chemotherapy and radiation are known to be a potent systemic oxidative insult, potentially impairing sperm function. Drugs such as the chemotherapy agent cyclophosphamide have been linked with sperm oxidative stress. Administration of cyclophosphamide to animals is reported to increase testicular malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and produce a fall in testicular catalase, implying the presence of oxidative stress 86, 87 . Similarly, radiation exposure has been shown to cause a systemic inflammatory reaction and increase in oxidative stress in both the irradiated tissue and non-irradiated bystander normal tissue 88, 89 . DNA fragments of apoptotic irradiated cancer cells are released into the intercellular space and interact with the DNA-binding receptors of the bystander non-irradiated cells, initiating activation of lymphocyte signalling pathways associated with synthesis of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, thereby inducing secondary oxidative stress 90 ....

Mitochondrial ROS and Spermatozoa 2211 Mitochondrial ROS Production

While these studies do not provide causative evidence for a link between DYm and ROS generation, it is further supported in a subsequent study by De Iuliis et al. 52 , which found that the 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) formation in human spermatozoa is negatively associated with DYm. To further emphasize such a relationship, exposure of purified human spermatozoa to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) results in significant increases in mitochondrial ROS and 8OHdG formation, which are highly correlative with each other (R2 0.727) 53 . While no study to date has analyzed the correlation between all three factors, mitochondrial ROS, DYm, and oxidative DNA damage, these data combined does suggest all three have significant relationship.

Modalities for Imaging the Adrenal Gland

MRI is increasingly used because it can reveal tissue-specific characteristics, which allows the examiner to differentiate metastases, adrenocortical carcinoma, and pheochromocytoma from adenoma, lipoma, myelolipoma, and cysts.4 Because MRI does not use ionizing radiation, it is an attractive modality for evaluating children and pregnant women.5 T1-weighted images allow relatively fast data acquisition, which may be accelerated by using paramagnetic contrast media such as acid (DTPA), resulting in a reduction of motion artifact and increasing the sensitivity for identifying adrenal lesions. T2-weighted sequences reveal characteristic signal intensities in certain conditions and help with the differential diagnosis.6 Some studies have suggested that MRI can differentiate nonfunctioning from malignant adrenal lesions,6 but because of similar characteristics of some tumors, the results are not reliable enough to use in selecting therapy.6,7 the presence of abundant intracellular...

Bipolar And Monopolar Recordings

Linked Ear Montage

In bipolar montages all electrodes are connected together in chains, with the second input to one channel becoming the first input to the next channel. The most common use of a bipolar montage is to record the electrooculogram. In this case horizontal eye movements are recorded by means of two electrodes placed at the external canthus of the left and right eyes, and blinks and vertical eye movements are recorded by means of two electrodes placed below and above the right eye, with a bipolar montage. In a monopolar montage, also called a common reference method, one electrode is active and the other one (or two electrodes linked together) acts as a reference electrode. Typical arrangements for the reference electrode(s) are the linked ears and the linked mastoids configurations. The reference lead must be as electrically neutral as possible with regard to brain activity, while it nevertheless records the basic activity underlying the various...

Differentiated Thyroid Cancer of Follicular Cell Origin

Thyroid Scan Thallium

Contemporary gamma cameras are optimized for imaging at the emission energy of 99mTc (140 keV) rather than much higher emission energies of l3lI (364 keV) or the lower emission energy of 201T1 (69 to 81 keV). Tc 99m sestamibi has the advantage of the availability of a kit-based radiopharmaceutical with same-day imaging. The other advantage of Tc 99m sestamibi over 20IT1 is a short physical half-life of 6 hours, whereas 201T1 has a physical half-life of 73 hours. Therefore, Tc 99m sestamibi can be administered in a larger dose (20 to 25 mCi), resulting in better images and lower radiation exposure to the patient.

General Considerations

A lack of patient motivation should lead to a decision to extract those questionable teeth before radiation therapy. Radiation exposure, type, field, and dosage also are parts of the decision formula regarding extraction of teeth. Usually not all of the mandibular teeth are included in the radiation portal. For example, teeth and anterior mandible between the mental foramen in radiation for base of tongue tumors receive less than 3,000 cGy, (absorbed bone dosage), and are thus at a very low risk for osteora-dionecrosis. On the other hand, posterior mandibular teeth receive a much higher dose of radiation.

What are some of the side effects of hormonal therapy and how are they treated

How can you tell if you have osteoporosis The best way to check the bone mineral density is the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan, the same study used to evaluate for osteoporosis in women. It is noninvasive, precise, and a quick test involving minimal radiation exposure. The test measures the bone mineral density, which is compared with values obtained from normal, young, adult control subjects.

Trior to matinib therapy Epidemiology And Etiology

The incidence of CML increases with age, with the median age of diagnosis in the fifth decade of life.1 In most newly diagnosed cases, the etiology cannot be determined but high doses of ionizing radiation and exposure to solvents such as benzene are recognized risk factors.

Inflammatory Conditions in the Gonad Oxidative Stress

Oxidative Stress And Female Infertility

Oxidative stress arises, among others, due to the exposure of the gonads to toxins, chemotherapy, ionizing radiation, bacterial inflammation, cryptorchidism, or pathology of veins in the spermatic cord (varicocele) 39 . The Leydig cells are physiologically and sometimes physically connected with macrophages, which makes possible their direct exposure to the growth factors and or differentiation factors which are secreted by macrophages. It was shown that in physiological conditions macrophages produce and secrete 25-hydroxycholesterol which stimulates the Leydig cells to produce testosterone 40, 41 . In inflammatory conditions, however, macrophages are activated by, e.g., LPS and produce proinflammatory cytokines,

Chloroform Overtone Spectra

Nacl Bond Ftir Spectrum

Electromagnetic Spectrum Electromagnetic radiation can be characterized by its wavelength X, its frequency v, or its wave number v. In the IR region the unit used for wavelength is the micrometer ( m). The frequency unit is cycles per second or hertz (Hz). The wave number unit is cycles per centimeter or reciprocal centimeters (cm-1). The wave number (cm-1) is the number of waves in a continuous wave sequence 1 cm long. The relationship between the units is given in Eq. (1) The visible region of electromagnetic radiation extends from about 0.38 to 0.78 m. The IR region extends from the end of the visible region at 0.78 m to the microwave region with a wavelength of mm. The IR region is usually divided into three sections. The section used most by chemists is the mid-IR region extending from 2.5 m, or 4000 cm-1, to 50 m, or 200 cm-1. The division at 4000 cm-1 is the high wave numberlimit for fundamental

What are externalbeam and conformal externalbeam radiation therapies What are the side effects of EBRT

Ams Artificial Urinary Sphincter

The genitourinary symptoms of dysuria, frequency, hesitancy, and nocturia are related to changes that occur in the bladder and urethra that result from radiation exposure. The bladder may not hold much urine because of the irritation and scarring, and irritation of the bladder lining may make it more prone to bleeding. Bladder inflammation usually occurs about 3 to 5 weeks into the radiation treatments and gradually subsides about 2 to 8 weeks after the completion of radiation treatments. Urinary anesthetics (phenazopyridine HCL Pyridium ) and bladder relaxants (antimuscarinic agents) may be helpful in decreasing the urinary frequency.

Ancyclostoma Brazillienses Force Out Of The Skin

Diabetic Septic Ankle

Figure 20-79 shows a subungual presentation of malignant melanoma of the hallux. Determine the cause of all subungual pigmented lesions. Unusual pigmentation under the nail, especially if of long duration, should always be regarded with suspicion. Subungual melanomas represent approximately 20 of melanomas in dark-skinned and Asian populations, in comparison with about 2 of cutaneous melanomas in white populations. Ultraviolet radiation exposure seems to be an important risk factor for cutaneous melanoma however, because ultraviolet radiation is unlikely to penetrate the nail plate, it does not appear to be a risk factor for subungual melanomas. There is a considerable predominance of subungual melanoma localized on the thumb (58 of all affected fingers) and the hallux (86 of all affected toes).

Autosomal Recessive Inheritance

Ataxia and telangiectasias of the bulbar conjunctivae, malar eminences, ear lobes, and upper neck increased increased of respiratory infections, Iymphomas, Hodgkins disease, acute leukemia, and a variety of cancers thymus gland is hypoplastic or absent there is decreased IgA and IgG increased chromosomal breakage and increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation of fibroblasts and Iymphocytes

Angle Resolved Photoelectron Spectra

A different situation occurs if a molecule is adsorbed at a surface and thereby fixed in space. For example, consider a rodlike molecule (e.g., CO) which, for a given final state M+, emits electrons preferentially in the direction of the molecular axis. In addition, assume that the emission probability is proportional to cos2 of the angle between molecular axis and electric vector E of the ionizing radiation. The system is fully described by three angles and the polarization of the radiation. The three angles are shown in Fig. 7a is the angle between the surface normal n and the propagation direction s of the radiation, 0 is the angle between n and the direction D of the outgoing electron, and is the angle between the ns plane and the nD plane. Usually 2 is called the incidence angle, 0 the polar angle, and the azimuthal angle. The important difference between free or space-fixed single molecules and periodic structures is as follows. In the first case, the intensity of the peaks in...

Electrical protection

Radiation from electro-magnetic fields (EMF) generated by power lines is another potential risk to people working near power lines. There have been reports about the relation between exposure to electromagnetic fields and health hazards like leukemia and brain cancer (Adanur, 1995). A typical electromagnetic protective fabric is woven from conductive material such as spun yarns containing a mixture of fire-retardant textile fibers and stainless steel fibers (8-12 micron diameter). It has been shown that fabrics made of 25 stainless steel fiber 75 wool blend or 25 stainless steel fiber 75 aramid fiber blend can protect the wearer from electromagnetic fields generated by voltages of up to 400 kV (Adanur, 1995). Protection at even higher voltages can be obtained by using a combination of these fabrics in two or more layers (King, 1988).

Predisposing factors to developing cancer

As society becomes more affluent, so the incidence of cancer can be demonstrated to rise. There could be a number of explanations for this, including increased wealth and improved health care enabling individuals to achieve a greater life expectancy than their grandparents (Gabriel, 2001). People are also surviving previously life-threatening illnesses, such as infectious diseases, major accidents, etc., only to live longer and possibly to develop cancer later in life. We also know that more affluent societies consume higher amounts of convenience foods, alcohol and tobacco, as well as being exposed to higher levels of chemicals and pollutants compared with people living in some less developed parts of the world. All these factors can contribute to an individual developing a malignancy (Venitt, 1978 Cartmel and Reid, 2000 Corner, 2001). Other factors can include past exposure to ionizing radiation, viruses and a genetic disposition (Cartmel and Reid, 2000 Yarbro, 2000a).

Studies on EMR and Male Infertility

Fig. 1.2 Proposed oxidative stress model of the effects of mobile phone frequency radiation on the human spermatozoon. Evidence suggests that, like several other factors, radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) can induce a non-thermal oxidative stress response in the gamete, possibly through interactions with NAD(P)H oxidases in the plasma membrane or by perturbation of mitochondria. This stress then leads to the range of adverse effects commonly observed under experimental conditions Fig. 1.2 Proposed oxidative stress model of the effects of mobile phone frequency radiation on the human spermatozoon. Evidence suggests that, like several other factors, radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) can induce a non-thermal oxidative stress response in the gamete, possibly through interactions with NAD(P)H oxidases in the plasma membrane or by perturbation of mitochondria. This stress then leads to the range of adverse effects commonly observed under experimental...

Stage I seminoma surveillance versus treatment

The testicular germinal epithelium is exquisitely sensitive to ionizing radiation so that in an effort to maintain hormonal and reproductive function in the remaining testis, scrotal shielding is routinely used. Despite this, some radiation scatter is still experienced and persistent oligo-spermia has been reported in 8 42 . There seems to be no increase in the incidence of children who have genetic anomalies born to men who have undergone radiation treatment of testic-ular malignancy 43 .

Tomographic Imaging Techniques

Irregular Vertebral Arrtery Waveform

MRA has the advantage over CTA (and catheter-based angiography) in that it does not use ionizing radiation or nephrotoxic contrast dye. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (GEMRA) is the most useful MRI technique for assessing PAD. Its sensitivity and specificity for detecting occlusive arterial disease is greater than 95 (compared with catheter-based DSA). It is also highly sensitive and specific for assessing vascular wall inflammation. Phase-contrast MRA is a separate technique that provides simultaneous anatomic and functional data, similar to duplex ultrasonography. Phase-contrast MRA can quantify flow across a stenosis or a shunt and can measure turbulence. It is not typically included in MRI protocols at most institutions, so it must be specifically ordered. but is more widely available, less operator dependent, and less susceptible to artifact. Less patient cooperation is necessary compared with MRI, and claustrophobia and prolonged breath-holding are less...

Basic Experimental Techniques

Length strikes a metallic roughness feature, the plasma of conduction electrons will oscillate collectively. Because this collective oscillation is localized at the surface of this plasma of electrons, it is known as a localized surface plas-mon resonance (LSPR). The LSPR allows the resonant wavelength to be absorbed and scattered, creating large electromagnetic fields around the roughness feature. The LSPR is depicted in Fig. 5. If a molecule is placed within the electromagnetic fields, an enhanced Raman signal is measured. Current estimates suggest that these electromagnetic fields reach further than 65 nm from the metal surface.

Oncogenesis in Thyroid Cancers of Follicular Cell Origin

2,5-85 , higher with radiation exposure absent in benign thyroid neoplasms Tyrosine kinase receptor, somatic mutation Higher prevalence in radiation exposure Possibly associated with more been designated RET PTC 1 to RET PTC5.1- Permanent activation of the tyrosine kinase results from the 5' foreign genes.16 The five foreign genes fused to the RET tyrosine kinase domain occur almost exclusively in papillary thyroid cancer (see Table 31-1). The frequency of RET PTC activating somatic mutations in sporadic papillary thyroid cancer is variable, ranging from 2.5 to 85 .2-17 30 This wide range in the prevalence of the RET PTC rearrangement genes in papillary thyroid cancer may be due to geographic variation, the age of patients studied, or the sensitivity of experimental techniques employed or a consequence of ionized radiation or external radiation exposures.15 31 For example, in thyroid neoplasms associated with the Chernobyl accident, 55 to 85 of the thyroid cancers had RET PTC...

Combining Antiangiogenic Agents with Metronomic Chemotherapy Enhances Efficacy against Latestage Pancreatic Islet

The concept of targeting the tumor vasculature as a means to disrupt tumors contrasts with conventional treatment strategies, which typically seek to kill as many proliferating tumor cells as possible by treating tumor-bearing individuals with maximal tolerated doses (MTD) of ionizing radiation or cytotoxic agents that damage DNA or disrupt microtubule functions during mitosis (Kerbel et al. 2002). Such harsh treatment protocols must be alternated with treatment-free periods to permit recovery of normal cells such as bone marrow progenitors and gut mucosal cells. Although often initially efficacious in the form of clinical remissions, such MTD therapies typically elicit recurrent tumors that are insensitive to that therapeutic.

Squamous cell carcinoma of the nail apparatus has a good prognosis compared with other sites

Trauma, chronic infection and chronic radiation exposure are possible aetiological factors human papillomavirus (HPV) has been incriminated in some cases. Two reported cases had associated congenital ectodermal dysplasia. Most lesions occur on the fingers, particularly the thumbs and index fingers (Figure 5.31). The presenting symptoms include pain, swelling, inflammation, elevation of the nail, ulceration, a tumour 'mass', ingrowing of the nail, 'pyogenic granuloma' and bleeding. Bone involvement is a rare, very late sign. The duration of symptoms before diagnosis is greater than 12 months in over half the cases. Only in one published case (with ectodermal dysplasia) has the condition led to death, from rapid generalized metastases.

Melanin In The Photoprotection Of Skin

Melanin can absorb electrons, as has been observed for some cation-exchange polymers, and its ion-exchange activity plays an important role in the biological system when skin is exposed to sunlight or ionizing radiation (241). Studies on this characteristic property of melanin by different authors revealed the mechanism of photoprotection and broadened our knowledge regarding melanin color.

Use Of X Rays For Materials Characterization

X rays are a short-wavelength form of electromagnetic radiation discovered by Wilhelm Roentgen in 1895. X-Ray-based techniques provided important tools for the theoretical physicist in the first half of this century, and since the early 1950s they have found an increasing use in the fields of materials characterization. Today, the analytical techniques based on X-ray diffraction and X-ray spectrometry, both of which were first conceived almost 70 years ago, play a vital role in the analysis and study of inorganic and organic solids.

Pediatric and Other Congenital Applications

There are settings where interventional MRI may have value even in straightforward catheter-based procedures. The advantages of MRI might include avoiding radiation or iodinated radiocontrast or reducing operator musculoskeletal injury from lead aprons. Children with congenital cardiovascular abnormalities are subjected to multiple catheter procedures during their lifetime and may accumulate a large radiation exposure with excess malignancy risk. Schalla, Higgins, Moore, and colleagues at the University of California San Francisco conducted comprehensive diagnostic cardiac catheterization procedures in swine with atrial septal defect (Fig. 64-10), using active-tracking catheters containing microcoils. They traversed right-sided and left-sided In landmark work, the team at Kings College London tested these techniques in humans using a combined XMR suite. They used MRI and passive gas-filled balloon-tipped catheters to conduct diagnostic cardiac catheterization in children, to avoid...

Inappropriate Detection Due to Oversensing

ICD sensing circuits are designed to be highly sensitive so that low amplitude EGM waveforms during fibrillation can be sensed adequately.5 As a result, oversensing of cardiac and noncardiac signals in ICDs occurs and is one of the major sources of inappropriate ICD therapy. Oversensing on the ventricular sensing channel of an ICD (ventricular oversensing) causes inappropriate VT VF detection due to overestimation of the true cardiac rate. Oversensing on the atrial sensing channel (atrial oversensing) may lead to failures of dual chamber SVT discriminators to properly withhold VT VF detection during SVT. Ventricular oversensing is generally a much more serious clinical concern than atrial oversensing, as it is more likely to result in inappropriate ICD therapy. Analyses of long-term studies of chronically implanted ICDs have reported that 7-11 of all ICD-detected VF episodes were due to ventricular oversensing of the intrinsic rhythm.95'97 The most commonly reported sources of...

Quasiexperiments casecontrol studies and cohort studies

To test the hypothesis that 'childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma can be caused by fathers' exposure to ionising radiation before the conception of the child, and more generally, to investigate whether such radiation exposure of either patient is a cause of childhood cancer'. These included (a) parental employment as radiation worker before conception of child, (b) cumulative dose of external ionizing radiation for various of periods of employment before conception of child, and (c) dose during pregnancy.

Treatment and Outcomes

Percutaneous device closure has proved effective in the repair of ASDs, with minimal morbidity and essentially no mortality. Closure rates are comparable to those of surgery over similar time periods (97 to 99 at 12 months), but procedural morbidity is considerably lower.105,110 Percutaneous closure avoids the necessity of a sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass, and mediastinal and chest-tube drainage, but it does have the disadvantage of limited exposure to ionizing radiation. Fluoroscopy times are brief (

Sensing and Detection

Oversensing is defined as sensing of unintended nonphysiological signals or physiological signals that do not accurately reflect local depolarization.1 Nonphysiological signals usually arise from extracardiac electromagnetic interference. Electrical artifacts are a common cause of oversensing from leads with insulation failure or intermittent fracture resulting in make-break potentials. Physiological signals may be intracardiac (P, R, or T waves) or extracardiac (myopotentials). Oversensing often results in characteristic patterns of near-field (pace-sense) and far-field (shock) electrograms (EGMs).2'3 In ICD patients, most oversensing results in detection of sufficiently rapid signals that inappropriate detection of ventricular fibrillation (VF) occurs. Oversensing accounts for approximately one third of inappropriate shocks in studies of chronic ICD systems.4 The second requires use of digital signal processing technology to discriminate true R waves from oversensed events. For...

Recommended reading

The production of an image of an affected area of the body is a useful diagnostic tool and can be achieved by radiography, ultrasound, nuclear scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Radiography is the most common method and makes use of the fact that X-rays, which are part of the electromagnetic spectrum, will create a permanent image on radiographic film.

What Practitioners Say It Does

Electric current and electromagnetic field applications are used by some practitioners to treat ulcers, burns, nerve and spinal cord injuries, diabetes, gum infections in dentistry, asthma, heart disease, and other maladies. One type of therapy involves placing an antenna in the patient's mouth, through which low-level electromagnetic energy is administered to treat insomnia and hypertension. A magnetic pulse generator is used in lieu of electroconvulsive therapy (informally known as electroshock) to treat depression and seizures. Scientific data do not support the effectiveness of magnetic or electric fields in the diagnosis or treatment of disease. It is ironic that electromagnetic therapies are being promoted today as alternative cures for cancer and other diseases, as international scientific research is simultaneously examining the possibility that even very weak electromagnetic fields can promote cancer in some body cells.

Female breast anatomy

Breast Anteror Photos

With increasing age, and especially after the menopause, the glandular elements of the breast become less prominent and tend to be replaced by adipose tissue (fat). Fat attenuates the beam less than glandular breast tissue as a result, fatty breast is darker. Significant disease (which tends to be dense and produce high attenuation or bright areas on the film) is detected more easily. Younger breast tissue is denser (whiter), and the sensitivity of mammography in patients under 50 years of age is thus reduced. The younger breast is also more sensitive to the adverse effects of ionizing radiation, so ultrasound is often used as the first-line investigation in younger patients, especially under 35 years of age.

Nuclear Power And Uncertainty

Many estimates and evaluations of nuclear power involve scientific and probabilistic uncertainty. There is, for example, uncertainty regarding actual radiation exposure levels, particular people's sensitivity levels, the likelihood of dangerous consequences in a specific case, the given causal chains of harm, and so on. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) representatives admit that Chernobyl could cause up to 28,000 fatal cancers in the former Soviet Union, Scandinavia, and Europe over the next 50 years. Other scientists and policy makers claim that the number of fatal cancers caused by Chernobyl will be as high as 475,000. Also, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Many assessors evaluating nuclear-related risks in situations of factual or probabilistic uncertainty follow traditional norms of avoiding false positives (type-I error) rather than avoiding false negatives (type-II error). For example, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the International Commission on Radiological...

Serendipity and Synchronicity

On the other hand, Wilhelm Rontgen's discovery of X-rays, in 1895, exemplified Type 1 serendipity. While attempting to detect cathode rays from an evacuated glass tube fitted with a black cardboard sheath (P1), he noticed that a distant cardboard screen coated with barium platinocyanide fluoresced with each discharge of the tube, regardless of which side of the screen the tube faced. The anomalous energy penetrated the black cardboard sheath and operated at distances beyond the effective range of cathode rays in air (E(x)). He realized that he was witnessing a ne