Info

Two projections are taken routinely, preferably with both the knee and hip joints included on the image. If this is impossible to achieve, then the joint nearest the site of injury should be included. A large cassette is placed in the table Bucky so that the effects of scatter are reduced. However, should only an image of the distal aspect of the femur be required, then the use of the Bucky can be eliminated in order to reduce patient dose. The patient lies supine on the X-ray table, with both...

Anatomy and image appearances

When the patient is supine, the pelvic brim is tilted according to the degree of angulation at the L5 S1 junction. This results in considerable variation in image appearance. A pronounced lordosis in the lower back can cause the obturator foramen to appear very elliptical and the symphysis pubis to be foreshortened. A small pad placed under the knees can reduce this lordosis and improve the image appearance. This increased L5 S1 angulation in females when compared with the male pelvis...

Cincinnati filter device

The use of this filter device is employed in cases of suspected inhaled foreign body when an antero-posterior image of the chest is acquired with the child lying supine. The Cincinnati filter is composed of 2 mm of aluminium, 0.5 mm of copper and 0.4 mm of tin inserted into the collimator box so that the copper layer is towards the -X-ray tube. Exposures used are in the range of 125-140 kVp and 10-16 mAs, using a cassette and grid system. On the exposed radiograph, bone detail is effaced to a...

Female breast anatomy

Breast Anteror Photos

The breast (mammary gland) is one of the accessory organs of the female reproductive system. The adult breasts comprise two rounded eminences situated on the anterior and lateral walls of the chest, lying superficially to the pectoral muscles and separated from them by areolar tissue and fascia. They extend from the second to the sixth ribs and from the lateral border of the sternum to the mid-axillary line. The supero-lateral part is prolonged upwards and laterally towards the axilla to form...

Section

Basic Principles of Radiography and Digital Technology EXPOSURE FACTORS Milliampere seconds Kilovoltage Focus-to-film distance Intensifying screens Digital image capture Secondary radiation grid Choice of exposure factors SUMMARY OF FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO RADIOGRAPHIC IMAGE QUALITY RADIATION PROTECTION Dose quantities Radiation risks Medical exposure legislation Practical protection measures The human body is a complicated structure, and errors in radiographic positioning or diagnosis can...