Cincinnati filter device

The use of this filter device is employed in cases of suspected inhaled foreign body when an antero-posterior image of the chest is acquired with the child lying supine. The Cincinnati filter is composed of 2 mm of aluminium, 0.5 mm of copper and 0.4 mm of tin inserted into the collimator box so that the copper layer is towards the -X-ray tube. Exposures used are in the range of 125-140 kVp and 10-16 mAs, using a cassette and grid system. On the exposed radiograph, bone detail is effaced to a...

Female breast anatomy

The breast (mammary gland) is one of the accessory organs of the female reproductive system. The adult breasts comprise two rounded eminences situated on the anterior and lateral walls of the chest, lying superficially to the pectoral muscles and separated from them by areolar tissue and fascia. They extend from the second to the sixth ribs and from the lateral border of the sternum to the mid-axillary line. The supero-lateral part is prolonged upwards and laterally towards the axilla to form...

Lateral flexion and extension

These projections may be required, but only at the request of a medical officer, to supplement the basic projections in cases of trauma, e.g. subluxation, or pathology, e.g. rheumatoid arthritis (and often before surgery to assess movement in the neck for insertion of an endotracheal tube). The degree of movement and any change in the relationship of the cervical vertebrae can also be assessed. If an injury is suspected or is being followed up, then an experienced trauma doctor must be present...

Section

Basic Principles of Radiography and Digital Technology EXPOSURE FACTORS Milliampere seconds Kilovoltage Focus-to-film distance Intensifying screens Digital image capture Secondary radiation grid Choice of exposure factors SUMMARY OF FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO RADIOGRAPHIC IMAGE QUALITY RADIATION PROTECTION Dose quantities Radiation risks Medical exposure legislation Practical protection measures The human body is a complicated structure, and errors in radiographic positioning or diagnosis can...