The use of fluoroscopy and, occasionally, computed tomography helps in the performance of interventional pain procedures in the cranial, cervical, thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic regions, thus adding safety and aiding in the successful completion of neuroablative procedures related to chronic malignant and nonmalignant pain.133

In addition, the instillation of opaque contrast material augments the precision of needle placement provided by radiography. Contrast dyes, especially nonionic formulations, have a lower risk of CNS toxicity when administered near the neuraxis than ionic agents. Contrast agents may precipitate local and systemic toxicity. Signs of toxicity may range from rash, or urticaria, to bronchospasm and anaphylaxis.

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