Conclusions

Inhibitory paradigms can be used to explore certain forms of unintentional and intentional forgetting in the laboratory. Doing so, evidence has arisen that inhibitory processes mediate the modulation in accessibility of irrelevant or to-be-forgotten information. Thereby, different inhibitory mechanisms have been suggested to reduce the accessibility of memory representations. The mechanisms differ in whether they affect the representation of irrelevant information itself or affect its retrieval...

Cognitive avoidance of intrusive memories in PTSD

Cognitive conceptualizations of PTSD (e.g., Ehlers & Clark, 2000 Ehlers & Steil, 1995 Foa, Steketee, & Rothbaum, 1989) posit that successful emotional processing of the trauma is prevented when the individual employs avoidant cognitive strategies. Cognitive avoidance includes intentional attempts at thought memory suppression, efforts to dissociate or detach oneself from the affective qualities of the trauma experience, and engaging in rumination (Ehlers & Clark, 2000). Various...

Self Awareness Self Concept and Visual Perspective

Nigro and Neisser (1983) suggested self-awareness is related to perspective memories for highly self-aware, emotional events produced more third-person perspectives than less self-aware and emotional events. Robinson and Swanson (1993) also showed that when individuals were asked to recall memories from four time periods in their life, those who scored high on a measure of public self-consciousness (Fenigstein, Scheier, & Buss, 1975) recalled more memories using a third-person perspective....

References

Psychological status of the script concept. American Psychologist, 36, 715-729. Ainsworth, S., Bluck, S., & Baron, J. M. (2009). Wisdom and wrinkles Two sides of the same coin Signpost Journal of Dementia and Mental Health Care of Older People, 3, 20-23. Cardiff and Vales NHS Trust Cardiff, UK. Alea, N., & Ali, S. (in press). Caribbean tales Telling life stories as a Caribbean heritage. In B. Reid (Ed.), Caribbean heritage. Tuscaloosa University of Alabama Press....

Characteristics of intrusive memories in PTSD

There is evidence that key characteristics of intrusive memories play an important role in contributing to the maintenance of PTSD. Ehlers, Hackmann, and Michael (2004), Ehlers et al. (2002), and Hackmann, Ehlers, Speckens, and Clark (2004) conducted detailed analyses of the content and qualities of intrusive memories of trauma survivors. Participants were questioned about a range of features of the memories e.g., whether intrusions consisted of sensory experiences (visual, sound, smell) and...

Empirical Investigations of Intrusive Trauma Memories

One obvious challenge in studying the underlying cognitive mechanisms of PTSD is that if studies use patients suffering from posttraumatic stress symptoms, the traumatic event has already happened. That is, it is difficult to study encoding processes, or even the early aftermath retrospectively. Furthermore, there are clear ethical reasons why a traumatic event cannot be simulated. Therefore, experimental studies have used analogue traumatic situations, like the trauma film paradigm to study...

Emotional Intensity Emotional Valence and Visual Perspective

Nigro and Neisser (1983) suggested emotional memories produce more firstperson perspective memories than neutral memories, and focusing on the retrieval of feelings experienced during an event produces more first-person perspectives than recalling concrete details. Further evidence for a relationship between visual perspective and the retrieval of feelings and emotions comes from a study in which participants recalled the details of controlled laboratory events from either a first-person or...

Intrusive Memories in Depression

A number of studies have provided evidence that intrusive memories are not unique to PTSD, but are also reported in depression (Brewin, Hunter, Carroll, & Tata, 1996 Carlier, Voerman, & Gersons, 2000 Kuyken & Brewin, 1994, 1995, 1999) by approximately 86 percent of clinical patients (Kuyken & Brewin, 1994). Kuyken and Brewin (1994) first investigated intrusive memories in depression. They found that females who experienced childhood abuse reported levels of intrusions that were...