What Are The Scars Like From Total Lymph Node Removal On The Neck

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Figure 11.15b. Fused PET/CT confirms positive node in the parotid gland.

Lymph Gland Removal Scar

Figure 11.15d. Incision allows wide access down to level III of the neck.

Removal Lymh Gland From Neck Scar
Figure 11.15e. Postoperatively the patient has no nerve weakness.

O'Brien, McNeil, and McMahon et al. (2002), two recent studies have been published. One series of 67 patients from New Zealand found again that the extent of parotid disease was an independent prognostic factor and that patients with both parotid and neck disease did worst, although interestingly adjuvant RT did not influence survival in their data (Ch'ng, Maitra, and Lea et al. 2006). The second paper was a retrospective multi-center trial from three Australian and three U.S. centers with 322 patients with metastatic cutaneous SCC to the parotid and/or neck. Results from this study show a significantly worse 5-year survival for patients with advanced P stage, 69%, vs. 82% for early P stage; and 61% with parotid + neck disease vs. 79% for parotid alone. This study supported the adoption of the new staging system separating parotid and neck disease (Andruchow, Veness, and Morgan et al. 2006).

In terms of behavior of metastatic cancer to the parotid, Bron et al. (2003) reviewed 232 cases of which 54 were primary parotid cancers, 101 were metastatic cutaneous SCC, 69 MM, and 8 other metastatic cancers. Patients were treated with primary surgery sparing the facial nerve where indicated, with 54 therapeutic and 110 elective neck dissections, and 78% of the patients had adjuvant RT. Five-year survival rates were 77% for primary cancers, 65% for metastatic SCC, 46% for MM, and 56% for other metastatic cancers. As expected, local failure was highest in metastatic SCC and distant failure in MM.

In treating patients with nodal involvement of the parotid, superficial parotidectomy with wide excision to obtain negative margins is indicated with facial nerve sacrifice if it is infiltrated. When the neck is also involved level II is the commonest site, and in these cases a comprehensive neck dissection is recommended (Figure 11.17). If the neck is clinically uninvolved (N0), and the primary cancer anterolateral to the parotid, then a suprao-mohyoid neck dissection including the external jugular nodes is indicated, and with a posterior primary level V should be dissected as well (Vauterin, Veness, and Morgan et al. 2006). Adjuvant RT is given in node positive necks for close margins or perineural invasion. In the case of MM where sentinel lymph nodes are identified in the parotid by scintigraphy, intraparotid sentinel lymph node biopsy is a reliable, accurate, and safe procedure (Loree, Tomljanovich, and Cheney et al. 2006).

In addition to regional metastasis from cutaneous primary cancers, metastasis can occur from noncutaneous head and neck carcinomas. Metastasis to the parotid from other head and neck sites—for example, the oral cavity—is more common if the usual lymphatic drainage pattern has been disrupted by previous neck dissection or radiation therapy (Ord, Ward-Booth, and Avery 1989). It is also possible for mucosal melanoma to metastasize to the parotid region (Figure 11.18).

There are fewer reports of involvement of the submandibular gland being directly involved by lymph node metastases, although it is routinely removed during neck dissection. The lymph nodes are not usually found within its capsule; however, Preuss, Klussman, and Wittekindt et al. (2007) found that in 24 malignant submandibular gland

Salivary Gland Removal Scars

Figures 11.16a and 11.16b. An elderly lady who had exci- Figure 11.16d. Proposed surgery with radical parotidec-

sion of eyelids and orbital exenteration for advanced squa- tomy and radical neck dissection.

mous cell carcinoma of the eyelids. She was lost to follow-up and now presents with massive disease in the parotid nodes (P3) and level II neck nodes (N2).

Figures 11.16a and 11.16b. An elderly lady who had exci- Figure 11.16d. Proposed surgery with radical parotidec-

sion of eyelids and orbital exenteration for advanced squa- tomy and radical neck dissection.

mous cell carcinoma of the eyelids. She was lost to follow-up and now presents with massive disease in the parotid nodes (P3) and level II neck nodes (N2).

Figure 11.16e. Post-resection the masseter muscle is sacrificed along with the facial nerve and a total parotidectomy. The mandible was uninvolved by tumor and was preserved.

Peron Roto Tiempo RecuperaciScar From Parotid Surgery

Figure 11.16f. Reconstruction is with a latissimus dorsi flap. The patient developed chest metastases 18 months post-surgery. Figures 11.16a, 11.16b, and 11.16f reprinted with permission from Ord RA. Local and regional flap reconstruction. In: Ward-Booth P, Schendel SA, Hausamen JE (eds.), Maxillofacial Surgery (2nd ed.). New York: Elsevier, 2007, pp. 643-665.

Figure 11.16f. Reconstruction is with a latissimus dorsi flap. The patient developed chest metastases 18 months post-surgery. Figures 11.16a, 11.16b, and 11.16f reprinted with permission from Ord RA. Local and regional flap reconstruction. In: Ward-Booth P, Schendel SA, Hausamen JE (eds.), Maxillofacial Surgery (2nd ed.). New York: Elsevier, 2007, pp. 643-665.

tumors, 30% were metastatic, 3 from the oropharynx, 2 from the nasopharynx, and 2 with unknown primaries.

In the sublingual gland metastatic spread from tongue cancer to sublingual nodes is not common and was first reported in 3 cases in 1985 (Ozeki et al. 1985). In one study of 253 patients with 326 neck dissections, 5 cases of lingual lymph node metastases were found and in all of these cases bilateral cervical nodes were found (Woolgar 1999). Whether these may explain some cases of "local" recurrence with previous negative margins is unclear. Certainly these lingual nodes would be removed in composite or "commando" resections where the tongue primary is removed in continuity with the neck dissection, but they may be left in cases where the primary cancer is resected from an intraoral approach and the neck dissection is performed separately. One study reports a 5-year actuarial survival of 80% for patients treated with incontinuity neck dissection compared to 63% for those with discontinuity dissection (Leemans et al. 1991). Whether some of this difference in survival is attributable to involvement of sublingual gland nodes is unknown.

Distant Metastases

The major salivary glands can also be a site for distant metastatic disease, especially the parotid gland, although these cases are rare. In a literature review of over 800 patients with metastatic disease in the parotid, 80% were from cutaneous SCC or melanoma (as described above), while 66 were noncutaneous head and neck tumors and 87 from a distant primary site (Pisani et al. 1993). In their personal series of 38 patients, 10 had noncutaneous head and neck cancers, while 4 were from distant sites (2 renal and 2 lung). Nuyens et al. (2006) found 34 of 520 parotid tumors to be metastatic, 31 from cutaneous primaries, 2 from ductal breast cancer, and 1 from an extremity rhabdomyosar-coma. Although rare, these distant metastases can provide a diagnostic challenge, as the two commonest primary sites appear to be lung and kidney. Small cell lung cancer is very difficult to differentiate from primary small cell carcinoma of the salivary glands, such that CT scan of the lungs is an essential part of the workup (Figure 11.19). Salivary glands are the second commonest head and neck site for primary small cell carcinomas (larynx being the most common), and these are aggressive tumors with an overall poor prognosis (Renner 2007). They are divided into neuroendocrine and ductal types, and according to cytokeratin 20 immu-noreactivity the ductal sites can be subdivided into pulmonary and Merkel types (Nagao, Gaffey, and Olsen et al. 2004). This study indicated that negative immunostain for cytokeratin 20 could be a marker for poor prognosis and also that salivary gland small cell carcinoma may have a better prognosis than extrasalivary sites.

In a single case report, immunohistochemical study of estrogen receptors was used to identify a parotid tumor as a breast metastasis (Perez-Fidalgo, Chirivella, and Laforga et al. 2007). Regarding distant metastases from renal cell cancer the same

Palpable Lymph Nodes
Figure 11.17a. Patient with nodular melanoma of poste- Figure 11.17b. Post-total parotidectomy and radical neck rior neck with palpable parotid lymph nodes. dissection.

Figure 11.17c. Surgical specimen with 5 cm skin margins. Patient developed lung metastases within 6 months and died of disease. Figures 11.17a, 11.17b, and 11.17c reprinted with permission from Ord RA. Metastatic melanoma of the parotid lymph nodes. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 18:3, 1989.

Intraoral Lymph NodesLymph Node Excision Scar
Figure 11.18b. Intraoral exam shows deeply pigmented melanoma involving the buccal mucosa and extending to the retromolar region.
Neck Scan Shows Nodes
Figure 11.18e. CT scan at a more cephalad level now shows multiple positive nodes in the parotid gland.

Figures 11.18f and 11.18g. Hematoxylin and eosin stain of the tumor (f) and HMB-45 stain (g) confirming the diagnosis of melanoma.

Removal Lymph Nodes Neck

Figure 11.19a. An 80-year-old woman with known small cell carcinoma of the lung presenting with metastatic mass in the left parotid gland.

Salivary Gland Tumor

Figure 11.19b. CT scan of the patient in Figure 11.19a.

Figures 11.18f and 11.18g. Hematoxylin and eosin stain of the tumor (f) and HMB-45 stain (g) confirming the diagnosis of melanoma.

Figure 11.19b. CT scan of the patient in Figure 11.19a.

g problem is found. Most of these will be from clear cell renal carcinoma and mimic the salivary clear cell adenocarcinoma or clear cell variant of MEC, which are both primary salivary gland cancers. In a case report and review of the literature, Park and Hlivko (2002) were able to find 25 cases of metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the parotid gland. In 14 of these cases (56%) the metastasis was the initial presenting sign of a previously undiagnosed renal carcinoma. None of the cases presented with facial paralysis and the authors were able to make the diagnosis in 3 of 6 cases with FNAB. In a small series of our own patients we were able to differentiate renal cell carcinoma from monomorphic clear cell salivary adenocarcinoma by immunohis-tochemistry and electron microscopic ultrastructural differences (Rezende, Drachenberg, and Kumar et al. 1997).

Distant metastasis to salivary glands other than the parotid appears to be extremely unusual, although a unique case of bilateral submandibular gland metastases from breast carcinoma was published in 2001 (Cain, Goodland, and Denholm 2001).

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